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MORMON, Compiler of the Book of Mormon, Author, 

Soldier, Holy Man Of God. Article by President Marion D Hanks page 13 
Painting of Full Figure o* Mormon, page 12 AHKIL IC700 





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Cover Note 

An artist's conception of the face of 
the great prophet and warrior Mormon 
is our cover subject this month. This is 
a portion of the painting of Mormon 
working on the sacred Nephite record, 
which is reproduced in its entirety on 
page 12. It illustrates an article by 
President Marion D. Hanks of the First 
Council of the Seventy concerning the 
man after whom the Book of Mormon 
was named. 

The painting is by the famous Ameri- 
can artist, Tom Lovell, of East Norwalk, 
Connecticut. Mr. Lovell was commis- 
sioned to do the painting in 1967 and 
delivered it in February of this year. 

A large back-lighted transparency of 
the painting is on display in the Mor- 
mon Pavilion at the HemisFair exposi- 
tion in San Antonio. (Please see page 
22.) 

Illustrations by Mr. Lovell have ap- 
peared on the covers and on interior 
pages of numerous magazines, includ- 
ing National Geographic, Reader's Di- 
gest, American, Colliers, Woman's Home 
Companion, McCalls, and Ladies' Home 
Journal. He has been awarded a gold 
medal by the Society of Illustrators of 
New York City. A World War II Marine 
veteran, he painted many works that 
hang in the Marine Corps headquarters 
in Washington, D.C. 



Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations. 
Home Teaching Committee. Music Committee, Church School System, and 
other agencies of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 

The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City. Utah 84111 



April 1968 




The Voice of the Church 



April 1968 



Volume 72, No. 4 



Special Features 

2 Editor's Page, The Salt Lake Temple, President David 0. McKay 

4 Cyrus Dallin and the Angel Moroni Statue, Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

8 The Joys of Temple Work, John A. Widtsoe 

13 Mormon: Compiler of the Book of Mormon, Author, Soldier, Holy 
Man of God, Marion D. Hanks 

15 To Sir, With Love — Family Movie of the Year, Doyle L. Green 

22 The Mormon Pavilion at HemisFair, Don LeFevre 

26 How to Earn Up to $557 a Day, Dr. Quinn G. McKay 

58 Speech and the Gospel, Marion G. Romney 

64 A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price: Part 1, Challenge and Re- 
sponse (continued), Dr. Hugh Nibley 

78 More Than One Son, Royce Hansen 

Regular Features 

10 Lest We Forget: Building Stones for the Temple, Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

30 Teaching: Personal Confrontation With Fundamental Questions, U. 

Carlisle Hunsaker 

54 Genealogy: Major Genealogical Record Sources in Norway 

70 Melchizedek Priesthood: The Best-Kept Secret in the Universe 

72 Today's Family: Empty Bookends, Florence B. Pinnock 

76 LDS Scene 

80 Buffs and Rebuffs 

82 The Presiding Bishopric's Page: The Presiding Bishop Talks to Youth 
About Prayer, Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

84 The Church Moves On 

87 These Times: Civil Disobedience and the Destruction of Freedom, 

Dr. G. Homer Durham 

88 End of an Era 

80, 84 The Spoken Word, Richard L. Evans 

Era of Youth 

37-52 Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors 

Fiction, Poetry 

18 Ne'er to Part, Carolyn Kaye Drew 
9, 36, 86, 88 Poetry 



David O. McKay and Richard L. Evans. Editors; Doyle L Green, Managing Editor; Albert L, Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; Mabel Jones Gabbott, Jay M. Todd, 
Eleanor Knowles, William T. Sykes, Editorial Associates; Florence B. Pinnock, Today's Family Editor; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon, 
Era of Youth Associate Editor; Ralph Reynolds, Art Director; Norman F. Price, Staff Artist. 

G. Homer Durham, Franklin S. Harris, Jr., Hugh Nibley, Sidney B. Sperry. Albert L Payne, Contributing Editors. 

G. Carlos Smith, Jr., General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott, Business Manager; A. Glen Snarr, Acting Business 

Manager and Subscription Director; Thayer Evans, S. Glenn Smith. Advertising Representatives. 

©General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1968, and published by the 

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multiple subscriptions, 2 years, $5.75; 3 years, $8.25; each succeeding year. $2.50 a year added to the three-year price: 35d single copy, except for 

special issues. 

Entered at the Post Office, Salt Lake City, Utah, as second class matter. Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in section 1103, 

act of October 1917, authorized July 2, 1918. 

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changes cannot be made unless the old address as well as the new one is included. 



The Editor's Page 





The 

Salt Lake 
Tbmple 



By President 
David 0. McKay 



L I 

P^Mk*. .^Hr even ty-five years ago this 

April 6, as the highlight 
of the Sixty-third Annual General Conference of the 
Church, the Salt Lake Temple was dedicated by 
President Wilford Woodruff. The completion of the 
Salt Lake Temple had been the goal of the Church 
and of all members during my youth. Now it was 
a reality. 

Four years later, in the summer of 1897, it was my 
privilege to visit with my father, Bishop David 
McKay of Huntsville, and my stake president to 
obtain a recommend for entering the Salt Lake 
Temple preparatory to fulfilling a mission call to 
Great Britain. 

Then there came that wonderful day, January 2, 
1901, when my sweetheart and I were in that temple 
to be sealed as man and wife for time and all eternity. 
How grateful I am for that day! All the days since 
then have been made more meaningful. 

The Salt Lake Temple was built during a span of 
40 difficult pioneering years. Why would the Church 
spend so much effort on building this and other 



Improvement Era 



temples? To answer that question, let us turn to the of a loving and divine Father. Yet, hundreds of mil- 
Bible. The glorious gospel of Jesus Christ has again lions have died without ever having heard that there 
been restored in its fullness. It is indeed the "restitu- is such a thing as a gospel plan. 

tion of all things, which God hath spoken by the Members of the Church in this dispensation have 

mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began." been commanded to be a temple-building people. In 

(Acts 3:21.) the temples, baptism for and in behalf of the dead 

On a certain occasion in the city of Jerusalem, there and other ordinances are administered. For this rea- 

was assembled a large crowd of people who were son Christ, after the crucifixion, preached to the spirits 

listening to the testimony of an apostle that Jesus was of many who had died, that by their acceptance of 

the Son of God, the resurrected Savior of men. Many the gospel, the temple ordinances could be admin- 

in the assembly became convinced that he spoke the istered for them vicariously upon the earth, that they 

truth. Realizing that they had crucified their own may be judged "according to men in the flesh." 
Lord in that very city, and swayed by the declaration One of the most important phases of gospel activity 

of the apostle, they were led to cry out, "Men and today is associated with the temples. I refer to 

brethren, what shall we do?" (Acts 2:37.) genealogical research, upon which vicarious temple 

It is significant that Peter's answer named the same work is wholly dependent. Genealogical research is 

means of salvation as did the mortal Jesus' reply to not only a function of the priesthood; it is also a 

Nicodemus: "Repent, and be baptized every one of responsibility of every member. When conscientiously 

you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of performed, this research contributes to unity in the 

sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost." home and permits us to catch the vision of the divine 

(Acts 2:38.) nature. Let us as a Church and as a people labor 

But since repentance and baptism by water as well with all our might to thus qualify as Saviors on Mount 

as by the Spirit are essential to salvation, how shall Zion. 

the millions who have never heard the gospel, who After the Saints came to Utah, the Salt Lake Temple 

have never had an opportunity to be baptized, enter was the first temple under construction, but the fourth 

into the kingdom of God? Surely a God of love can one to be completed. The Saint George, Logan, and 

never be satisfied if the majority of his children are Manti temples were completed and dedicated prior 

outside his kingdom, swelling eternally in either to the Salt Lake Temple. (The Church had built 

ignorance, misery, or hell. Such a thought is revolting temples at Kirtland and Nauvoo, and while awaiting 

to intelligent minds. On the other hand, if these the completion of the Salt Lake Temple, a temporary 

millions who died without having heard the gospel temple— the Endowment House — was built on Temple 

can enter into the kingdom of God without obeying Square.) Since the dedication of the Salt Lake 

the principles and ordinances of the gospel, then Temple, temples have been built and now serve their 

Christ's words to Nicodemus that man must be born purpose in Hawaii, Alberta ( Canada ) , Arizona, Idaho, 

again of water and the Spirit were not the statement Switzerland, England, California, and New Zealand, 

of a general and eternal truth, and Peter's words on for the blessing of the Saints. 

the day of Pentecost had not a universal application, I rejoice that temples are soon to be constructed 

even though he said plainly, "For this promise is unto in Ogden and Provo, Utah. A temple is soon to crown 

you, and to your children, and to all that are afar my own Weber County, and it is fitting that one is 

off, even as many as the Lord our God shall call." also to be built adjacent to the campus of the Brig- 

(Acts 2:39.) ham Young University. On the campus one is edu- 

The gospel of Jesus Christ teaches that all mankind cated for mortality; in the nearby temple these 

may be saved by obedience to the laws and ordinances horizons are lifted to eternal endeavors and pursuits, 

thereof. Nor is the term "all" restricted in meaning Mortality and immortality are just one eternal road— 

to include only a chosen few; it means every child one glorious whole! 



April 1968 




The diagram shows ingenuity the 
pioneers used in anchoring the Angel 
Moroni statue. A steel rod about two inches 
in diameter extends from the base of the 
1,500-pound statue into the tower, where 
two rods, slanting downward another 20 
feet or so, are firmly secured in the tower 
walls by additional bracing. From the base 
of these rods, another rod extends down- 
ward, holding five weights of iron weighing 
over 400 pounds each, counterbalancing 
any movement of the statue. 




ist as the 
Statue of 
Liberty 
stands at a gateway to America 
with upraised torch symbolizing 
freedom and justice to all 
the world, so the statue of the 
Angel Moroni, atop the central 
eastern spire of the Salt Lake 
Temple, symbolizes the 
golden truths of the everlasting 
gospel, restored in these 
latter days. 

The statue of the angel is 
the work of Cyrus E. Dallin, who 
was born November 22, 1861, 
at Springville, Utah, a small 
community six miles south of Provo. 
He was the second in a family 
. of eight children of Thomas 

Illustration by ° 

Meivin Alexander Dallin, a miner. 

The Piute and Ute Indians 
were numerous in and around 
Springville. In the fall 
they would receive permission to 



Improvement Era 



build their dwellings in the 

fields, and during the winter they 

would sell hides and game 

to the settlers. Young Cyrus 

learned to love these 

Indian neighbors as he did the 

rugged mountains near his home. 

His school slate was often 

filled with drawings rather than 

with the prescribed lessons 

of the day. 

A Presbyterian minister, in 
whose school he was enrolled, 
encouraged him to develop 
his art talents. Once the Reverend 
Leonard needed a drawing 
of the decrepit adobe schoolhouse 
to send East to show the need 
for more funds. He asked 
Cyrus to do the drawing, and it 
was soon on its way. Young 
Dallin was now a real artist, one 
who had received money 
for his work. 

In the spring of 1879 he went 
to work in one of his father's 
mines in Silver City, Utah, 
to earn enough money to go to 
school and study art in Provo. 
At first he cooked for himself and 
three other employees; then 
he got a job sorting ore, loading it 
in a wheelbarrow, wheeling 
it to the shaft, and screening it. 
It was hard work in a rough 
element, and he worked there 
about six months. 

One day the miners struck 
some soft, white, chalky clay. 
Young Dallin yielded to his 
temptation and molded two life- 
size heads, improvising his 
own tools. He said that he had 
experimented with clay at 
home, where he also had gained 
experience in carving wood 
with his jackknife and had done 
some sketching. The clay 
models were sent to a fair 
in Salt Lake City in October 
1879, together with two 
of his drawings. 

The following spring, C. H. 
Blanchard of Silver City 



was so impressed with young 

Dallin's talent that he talked with 

Jacob Lawrence, a wealthy 

Salt Lake City mining man, and 

together they raised the money 

to send Dallin to Boston 

and the studios of Truman H. 

Bartlett, the sculptor. Mr. Bartlett 

wrote a letter about the young 

"Brigham Young Monument" 
when on Temple Square 




Dallin at 22 years of age in Boston. 




man to the Deseret News on 
June 12, 1880, saying in part: "As 
his father is not a man of 
means, it is not probable that 
he can afford to pay his son's 
expenses very long. The 
tuition of the lad is free, and all 
that he needs is enough to pay 
his board and furnish him with 
clothes. The lad has fine 
talent for sculpture, and if properly 
educated will be an honor 
to himself and those interested 
in him." 

A number of people were 
interested in furthering Dallin's 
talents, and his rise was 
meteoric. In February 1884 
it was announced that he was to 
open a studio in Salt Lake 
City, but by the end of June it 
was reported that he had gone 



East to study, and that 
December brought news that 
he was going to Paris. 

He married Vittoria Colonna 
Murray of Roxbury, Massachusetts, 
on June 16, 1891, and 
immediately returned to Salt 
Lake City, where 
he worked until 

The "Appeal to the Great Spirit," 





■ ■>:;:■:«<■■ 



the winter of 1894. During 
this fruitful period, he sculpted 
the Brigham Young monument, 
which was unveiled at the 
golden anniversary of the arrival 
of the pioneers in Salt Lake 
Valley. He also did some 
busts of the First Presidency. 

William B. Preston, presiding 
bishop; John R. Winder, his 
second counselor; and D. C. Young, 
the temple architect, together 
with Mr. Dallin, met with 
the First Presidency on July 21, 
1891, and submitted drawings of 
spires to be placed on the 
stone balls that then capped 
the towers of the Salt Lake 
Temple. They also had a 
drawing created by Dallin of a 
heavenly messenger blowing 
a trumpet. 



April 1968 



Less than a month later, on 
August 19, the designs to 
finish the temple towers were 
accepted by the First Presidency. 
The architect was instructed 
to confer with Mr. Dallin 
concerning the cost 
of modeling 
the figure of the angel to 



thin gauge copper could have 
been used to fabricate 
the statue. 

On Wednesday, April 6, 1892, 
an estimated 40,000 persons 
were crowded on Temple Square, 
with additional thousands on 
adjoining streets and vantage 
points, to witness the placing of 



Young, an architect. ) The letter 
continues : 

"In reply to your letter 
of inquiry concerning what I 
had in mind' when I made the 
statue placed on top of 
the Salt Lake Temple. 
Permit me to state 
that I had no other 



"Massasoit," overlooks Plymouth Rock, Mass. "Wilford Woodruff" S.L.C. 



The Medicine Man," in Fairmont Park , Philadelphia 




top the central eastern spire. 

W. H. Mullins and Company, 
Salem, Ohio, custom makers 
of statues, took the model and 
constructed the 12 foot 5V2-inch 
figure of "24-hammered copper." 
Although the company is 
still in business as Mullins 
Manufacturing Corporation, 
their records of the 1890's no longer 
exist. And neither that 
corporation nor Kennecott 
Copper Corporation and its sub- 
sidiary Chase Brass and 
Copper Company can fully identify 
what is meant by "24-hammered 
copper." Some metallurgists 
feel that it could weigh 24 
ounces per square foot. This 
would make the copper thickness 
about 0.032 inches. It is 
possible that a comparatively 



the gold-leafed statue of the 
angel into position. In a general 
conference session that day 
members of the Church had 
committed themselves to the task 
of finishing the Salt Lake 
Temple and dedicating it one 
year hence, April 6, 1893. 

Some have wondered about 
the designation of the "heavenly 
angel in the act of blowing 
his trumpet." It was called Moroni 
in a Deseret News account 
reporting its placement. Many 
years later Mr. Dallin wrote 
a letter dated July 30, 1938, and 
addressed to "My dear 
Mr. Young." ( Unfortunately we 
do not know who Mr. Young is. 
It could have been Levi Edgar 
Young of the First Council 
of the Seventy or Don Carlos 



thought in mind but to carry 
out (as best I could) my 
commission; which was for a 
statue of the Mormon angel 
'Moroni.' 

"Other than this I know 
nothing. . . . 

(Signed) Cyrus E. Dallin." 

Mr. Dallin was indeed on his 
way to becoming a great sculptor. 
In January 1896 it was noted 
that he was doing work for 
the Congressional Library. He 
sent a cablegram of best 
wishes as his Brigham Young 
monument was unveiled on 
Temple Square in July 1897. When 
it was moved to its present 
position at the intersection of South 
Temple and Main streets, he 
was one of the speakers at a 
ceremony on Pioneer Day, 1900. 



Improvement Era 



He frequently came "home" 
to Utah, although the Boston 
area was his home for much 
of his adult life. During the 
1920's, while Mr. Dallin was 
on a visit in Salt Lake City, 
he stopped at Temple Square, 
where he was recognized by 
President Levi Edgar Young 

"The Scout," on a Kansas City, Missouri, hill. 



golden statue on the temple spire. 

"I consider that my 'Angel 
Moroni' brought me nearer to 
God than anything else I ever did," 
said Mr. Dallin. "It seemed 
to me that I came to know 
what it means to commune 
with angels from 
heaven." Then 

"Signal of Peace," Lincoln Park, Chicago 

1 




of the First Council of 
the Seventy, then serving as 
president of the Temple Square 
mission. Together the two old 
friends talked about Mr. 
Dallin's statues, which were 
world-renowned, of his historic 
figures, of his portrayals of 
the American Indian in authorita- 
tive, dignified, and impressive 
ways.* After attending an 
organ recital by John J. 
McClellan, they sat on the 
curb surrounding the Sea Gull 
Monument, looking at the 



'Among his better known Indian 
statues are: the Medicine Man (Fair- 
mount Park, Philadelphia); the Signal of 
Peace (Lincoln Park, Chicago); the Ap- 
peal to the Great Spirit (Museum of 
Fine Arts, Boston); the Scout (Kansas 
City); Massasoit (Plymouth Harbor, 
Massachusetts, with a copy on the Utah 
State Capitol grounds). 



he added, "We can only create in 
life what we are and what 
we think." 

He was on hand to speak 
at the unveiling of his 
Pioneer Monument at Springville, 
Utah, July 24, 1932, where 
he said of his mother: "She 
had no hardships, for she had a 
family, and love dwelt in the 
four walls of our home." 

Coming again to Utah 
in June 1934, Mr. Dallin compared 
his airplane trip of 22 hours 
with his parents' three-month 
journey across the plains 
in the early 1850's. 

"I owe my art to my mother, 
Jane Hamer Dallin, who loved 
beauty," he recalled. "In 
childhood days she modeled 
things out of clay and baked them 



in the oven. It was a case 

of heredity. I always liked art 

and began sketching and 

modeling when just a child, and 

she, with my father, Thomas 

Dallin, gave me every 

encouragement." 

There were years of 
frustration, too, in his professional 
life. As a young student in 
Boston in 1884 he did an 
equestrian statue in plaster of 
Paul Revere. He spoke of it 
to visitors to his studio in Salt 
Lake City, believing that success 
was imminent. Recorded 
accounts say that "every year 
from 1884 on, Dallin appealed 
to each city administration to 
accept his statue." 

Then in early January 1940— 
after 55 years— Mayor Maurice J. 
Tobin, as chairman of 
trustees for the George Robert 
White Fund, notified the 
78-year-old sculptor that he had 
been awarded a $27,500 contract 
to cast the figure in bronze for 
placement in the Paul Revere 
Mall, near the place where 
Revere's famous ride began. 
Using the phrasing, but in words 
not equal to those of Long- 
fellow, Mayor Tobin said: 
"Listen, my children, and you shall 

hear, 
Of the ignoble failure of Boston to 

rear 
The equestrian statue of Paul 

Revere; 
'Tis enough to make even an angel 

swear, 
But being only human I refuse to 

despair. . . ." 

Cyrus Edwin Dallin, Utah-born 
dean of American sculptors, 
died November 14, 1944, 
at his home in Arlington, 
Massachusetts, eight days short 
of his eighty-third birthday. He 
was survived by his widow 
and two sons. Another son had 
been killed in action in France 
during World War I. 



April 1968 




e have on every hand 
in this Church many op- 
portunities for gaining the great spiritual knowledge 
and strength with which we may surround and in- 
terpret all the acts of our lives. Every principle, every 
part of the organization of this Church lends itself 
to the spiritual strengthening and up-building of our 
lives. 

Temple work, for example, gives a wonderful 
opportunity of keeping alive our spiritual knowledge 
and strength. We believe that those who die with- 
out the faith, may be served by us, as proxies, in 
the holy temples; and that these dead, because of 
our unselfish labors, may be able to secure bless- 
ings, somewhat similar to those that we desire for 
ourselves. Thus, by serving the dead, we commit 
ourselves definitely to the great eternal plan of 
human salvation, which constitutes the spiritual 
basis of all life. 

The past, the present, and the future are united 
by our vicarious acts. The mighty perspective of 
eternity is unraveled before us in the holy temples; 



8 



Improvement Era 




we see time from its infinite beginning to its endless 
end; and the drama of eternal life is unfolded before 
us. Then I see more clearly my place amidst the 
things of the universe, my place among the purposes 
of God; I am better able to place myself where I 
belong, and I am better able to value and to weigh, 
to separate and to organize the common, ordinary 
duties of my life, so that the little things shall not 
oppress me or take away my vision of the greater 
things that God has given us. 

My brethren and sisters, we belong to the last 
days, in this last great dispensation, which has un- 
folded the great explanations of life. God has said 
that this people is to prepare for the last days. The 
last days will come; there will be a time when this 
work shall be accomplished, and a new work under- 
taken. One of the great purposes of this Church is to 
prepare for the last days. There shall be signs of the 
last days; there shall be things that will tell us when 
the last days are about to occur and when they are 
here. May I say to you that we need not go far away 
to look for these signs; they are about us. I know of 
no more convincing sign of the approaching end 
than the work now being done in our temples. . . . 
Many [more] endowments are now being done daily 
in the Salt Lake Temple [than] were done a few years 
ago. This is a sign of the last days. When the hearts 
of the fathers and the hearts of the children, living 
and dead, are tied together in love, and in recogni- 
tion of God's great purposes for the human family, 
then the Lord has found a people which may prepare 
properly for the last great coming of the Savior and 
the purification of all things, and the re-establishment 
of the true kingdom of God. P 

-Conference Report, April 1922, pp. 97-98. 




Salt Lake Temple 



By Lucille Perry 



ow clouds now lay a 
purple balm that heals 
Deep wounds once cut into the canyon's 

breast, 
Where wagon loads of stone have rolled 

their wheels 
There on the plain the chiseled blocks rose high, 
Fulfillment of the visionary plan, 
While yet the desert valley met the sky, 
Not yet awakened by the touch of man. 

Now that our valley blossoms ive are heirs 
To all they built — their testament in stone: 
The granite walls and spires that once 

were theirs. 
Our heritage and challenge. We have grown 
In wealth and number — this is still the place 
Blessed for our people — yet we know our 

strength 
Lies in this temple. These stately walls embrace 
Our faith, our future in their breadth 

and length. 



April 1968 



Lest We Forget 




dobe intermixed with pebbles? 
Oolite from the 
quarries of Utah's Sanpete? Red sandstone from 
nearby hills? What material should be used for the 
walls of the Salt Lake Temple? There was discussion; 
there was investigation. 

At the morning session of the general conference on 
October 9, 1852, President Heber C. Kimball of the 
First Presidency challenged: "Shall we have the 
temple built of stone from red butte, adobes, rock, 
or the best stone the mountains afford?" The con- 
ference voted that "we build a temple of the best 
materials that can be obtained in the mountains of 
North America," and that the presidency decide where 
the stone and other materials might be obtained. 

Ground was broken for the Salt Lake Temple 
February 14, 1853, and the cornerstones were laid 
April 6 of that year. By the time the temple founda- 
tion of red butte firestones laid in lime mortar was 
finished, the granite outcroppings in Little Cotton- 
wood Canyon, some 18 miles southeast of Temple 
Square, were attracting much attention. 

Stone workers were delighted with samples of 
the granite. The rock, technically a syenite, is gen- 



10 



Improvement Era 



erally called white granite. In reality it is gray, made 
so by the dark color of the mica and the hornblende 
that are among its components.* It is indeed fitting 
that this house of the Lord should be constructed of 
granite from "the framework of the earth's crust." 

James Livingston, who was named superintendent 
of the red butte quarry from 1853, was transferred 
to the Little Cottonwood quarries as they were 
opened. There was no need to excavate or even cut 
into the mountains: huge granite boulders in ages past 
had been strewn there. From them, with hammer, 
wedge, chisel, and low-yield explosives, the building 
stones took shape. Sometimes half-driven chisels 
and wedges were left for days, months, or even 
years. 

The stones defied sawing, and the folktale of allow- 
ing water to freeze in a crack and thereby split the 
rock is erroneous, although an inventive workman 
may have tried to do that. 

The stones were prepared at the quarries and taken 
on the long, tortuous way to Temple Square. In the 
beginning the hauling was done mostly by ox teams, 
and it was not an unusual sight in the 1860's to see four, 
six, or eight toiling oxen hauling one gigantic stone 
or two smaller ones on the three- or four-day journey. 
Later a few mule teams were used. One never feared 
losing the way to or from the quarries— it was marked 
with broken wagons and gear. A canal was projected 
to float the stone on its way, and much work was 
accomplished there before it was realized that the 
coming railroad was the answer. The canal effort 
was not lost; the stream was used to bring irrigation 
water to fertile fields in the valley. 

Skilled stoneworkers finished the stones on Temple 
Square. (It was difficult to find such workers, and 
over the years some of the quarrymen who were espe- 
cially adept were transferred to Temple Square and 
became finishers.) Masons finally took the stones 
and placed them in the wall. 

In 1876 this letter was circulated: 

". . . The Presidents of Seventies have issued a 
circular calling upon their quorums to continue their 
present labors on the Temple and in the quarry. It is 
desirable that the High Priests' and Elders' quorums 
continue their labors as heretofore, that the work upon 
the Temple may progress as fast as practicable during 
the winter, and that preparation may be made for the 
accomplishment of a great work the next summer. If 
any of the quorums can provide for the payment of 
competent workmen to do the fine cutting for the 
outside courses it should be attended to, as there is a 
large amount of common stone now cut, and being 
cut, and it requires a stronger force of workmen for 
the outside finish, that all portions may progress 



equally with celerity and dispatch. There are a num- 
ber of workmen in the city, and perhaps elsewhere, 
who stand ready to do this face work when called 
upon. . . ." 

By 1872 the Utah Southern railroad had been built 
south through Salt Lake County, so the rock could 
then be hauled to Sandy station and taken by rail into 
the city. President Brigham Young wrote Albert 
Carrington of the European Mission: "You will be 
gratified to learn that we are now shipping granite 
from the quarry to the Temple Block by rail all the 
way. A narrow gauge road is building, mostly by our 
people, running up from a junction with the Utah 
Southern at Sandy Station. On April 4 [1873] I wit- 
nessed the loading of the first rock shipped over this 
road, and we brought it on our train." (Millennial 
Star, Vol. 35, p. 314. ) 

It is ironic that manv of the great stones for the 
temple were transported before the coming of the 




railroad, with its spur line up South Temple Street 

into Temple Square. Still, it is recorded that at the 

death of President Brigham Young four years later, 

in the summer of 1877, the temple walls stood about 

20 feet above the ground — scarcely one foot for each 

year of construction. But as the walls grew in height, 

so did the enthusiasm for making them grow. When 

the towers began to appear, the enthusiasm was at 

feverish pitch. The Salt Lake Temple was completed 

and dedicated by President Wilford Woodruff April 6, 

1893—40 years to the day after the cornerstones were 

laid. O 

e During the spring of 1882 the 
stone was analyzed as follows: 



Silica 


68.60 


Alumina 


15.74 


Peroxide of iron 


4.01 


Lime 


3.15 


Soda 


5.98 


Potassium 


2.52 


Magnesia 


.51 


Manganous oxide 


.12 


Total 


100.63 




April 1968 



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ormon, compiler 
and abridger of 

the Book of 

Mormon, was a prophet and a holy man who also 

served as commander of the armed forces of the 
Nephite nation. Combining in his character the 
qualities of great strength and deep spirituality, 
he was a teacher and guide to his people, testify- 
ing of Jesus and crying repentance to them while 
he led their armies to brilliant military victories. 

Sickened with their unrighteous arrogance 
when his people, forgetting God, celebrated their 
soldierly triumphs by boasting of their own 
strength, Mormon refused for a time to lead them 
in battle. He condemned their oaths of vengeance 
and death against their enemies, but relented 
when their dreadful defeat and destruction be- 
came inevitable; he marched with their armies 
and died with them in the terrible struggles that 
resulted in the virtual extinction of the Nephite 
nation. 

He was named after the land of Mormon, where 



Alma, converted through the preaching of 
Abinadi, found refuge from King Noah's court 
and established the Church of Christ. Mormon, 
with all his other duties, served as historian and 
custodian of the records of his people and was 
assigned the monumental task of abridging those 
records into a concise account. As chief literary 
figure and laborer, his name was given to the 
completed record, though in fact it was written 
by many authors. 

Mormon the Man 

What went into the making of this prophet- 
general-historian? What mattered most to him? 
What did he teach? How well did his life reflect 
his convictions? 

Mormon was a "pure descendant" of Lehi and 
of Nephi. It is remarkable to observe how 
early in life his disposition and commitment be- 
came evident: 

At ten years of age he was known by respon- 
sible men to be a "sober child, . . . quick to 
observe," and received a significant assignment 
for the future. 

At 11 he traveled with his father to the land 
of Zarahemla. 

At 15 he was "visited of the Lord, and tasted 
and knew of the goodness of Jesus." 

In his sixteenth year he commanded the armies 
of the Nephites. 

In his teens he fearlessly sought to preach re- 
pentance to the people at a time when they had 
"no gifts from the Lord, and the Holy Ghost did 



April 1968 



13 



not come upon any." 

As with other great men, as with the Lord him- 
self when he was on the earth, Mormon's remark- 
able mission and contribution took form while 
he was very young; he made up his mind and 
committed his life in his early years. The great 
promise was fulfilled in a life of selfless service. 

He Loved the Lord 

The signature of his service is found in Mor- 
mon's simple statement: 

"Behold, I am a disciple of Jesus Christ, the 
Son of God. I have been called of him to declare 
his word among his people, that they might have 
everlasting life." 

He believed and taught forcefully that "in 
Christ there should come every good thing." 

He urged them to "search diligently in the light 
of Christ that ye may knoiv good from evil; and if 
ye will lay hold upon every good thing, . . . ye 
certainly will be a child of Christ," for, he said, 
Christ "advocateth the cause of the children of 
men." 

He Loved His People 

Notwithstanding their wickedness, Mormon 
loved his people: 

"I had led them many times to battle, and had 
loved them, according to the love of God which 
was in me, with all my heart; and my soul had 
been poured out in prayer unto my God all the 
day long for them. . . ." 

"And my prayer to God is concerning my breth- 
ren, that they may once again come to the knowl- 
edge of God, yea, the redemption of Christ. . . ." 

"I love little children with a perfect love; and 
they are all alike and partakers of salvation." 

Mormon prayed for his people, noting that their 
repentance was not sincere but was the "sorrow- 
ing of the damned," and that "the day of grace 
was passed with them, both temporally and 
spiritually." 

The earnest ambitions of his heart were "that I 
could persuade all ye ends of the earth to repent 
and prepare to stand before the judgment-seat 
of Christ." 



A Wise and Faithful Teacher 

Mormon lived his convictions. The great 
spiritual depth of his teachings was combined 
with wise counsel for the daily problems of life 
and personal conduct consistent with his profes- 
sions. Humbly he pleaded with his people to live 
with honor, to protect "that which [is] most dear 
and precious above all things, which is chastity 
and virtue." 

He urged them 

• to "pray unto the Father with all the energy 
of the heart." 

• to "know that God is not a partial God." 

• to have charity, for "charity is the pure love 
of Christ, and it endureth forever." 

• to pray and act and give "with real intent of 
heart." 

• to be sensitive to the Spirit of Christ, which 
is "given to every man, that he may know 
good from evil." 

• to believe in prophets and angels and miracles, 
for God works in "divers ways" to "manifest 
things unto the children of men." 

• to believe in the restoration of the Jews and 
the Lamanites, in the gathering in of the 
house of Jacob and the house of Joseph. 

Admonition and Promise 

Much of Mormon's life was lived amidst carnage 
and destruction and tragic unrighteousness, yet 
he fought both evil and enemy to the death. 
Strong and faithful himself, he sought to the 
end to bring his people to repentance. His vale- 
dictory may well have been in his plea that 
"they who have faith in him will cleave unto 
every good thing," and in the admonition delivered 
through his son Moroni: 

"Wherefore, my beloved brethren, pray unto 
the Father with all the energy of heart, that ye 
may be filled with this love, which he hath be- 
stowed upon all who are true followers of his Son, 
Jesus Christ; that ye may become the sons of 
God." O 

References: Mormon 1:2, 1:6, 1:14, 1:15, 2:1, 2:2, 2:13-15. Words 
of Mormon 8. 3 Nephi 5 :13, 5 :20-26. Moroni 7 :9, 7 :16, 7 :19, 7 :22, 
7:24, 7:28, 7:47-48, 8:17-18, 9:9. 



14 



Improvement Era 






"" 







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***** jfl 







Teacher Sidney Poitier demonstrates the fine art of making a salad the London docks in To Sir With Love. The film was selected by 
to his class of underprivileged youngsters in a slum school near Latter-day Saint agencies to receive the movie of the year award. 



To Sir, With Love 

Family Movie of the Year 



By Doyle L. Green 

Managing Editor 



The camera focuses on one student after an- 
other in a classroom. They are radiant. Their 
faces are washed, their hair is combed, and their 
clothes are clean. The teacher has just come in. 
For a brief time he finds it hard to speak, and he 
just looks at the students. Finally he says, "For 
a moment I thought I was in the wrong room." 

This is just one of a series of marvelous trans- 
formations that take place in the students of this 
senior class in a slum school near the London 
docks, under the tutelage of an understanding, 
dedicated, and determined teacher as portrayed in 
the fine motion picture To Sir, With Love. 

To Sir, With Love was selected by a panel of 
judges to receive the third annual family movie 
of the year award presented by The Improvement 
Era, the Deseret News, KSL, and Brigham Young 
University. The movie and its writers, producers, 
directors, and actors were honored March 28 in 
day-long activities that included a student assem- 
bly and an award dinner held on the BYU campus. 

Star of the film is Sidney Poitier, dynamic, sen- 



sitive, Academy Award-winning actor. Also 
starring are a dozen or so young people who take 
the parts of the students. They do a superb and 
convincing job portraying rejects from other 
schools who are taught manners, morals, self- 
control, cleanliness, and many other valuable les- 
sons by their devoted teacher. 

To Sir, With Love is based on a book of the 
same name by E. R. Braithwaite. The author 
was born and spent his early years in the country 
now known as Guyana. (He is now the ambassador 
from that nation to the United Nations.) Coming 
to the United States to continue his education, 
he obtained a degree from City College in New 
York City, and subsequently earned a master's 
degree in physics at Caius University in Cam- 
bridge, England. After serving as a fighter pilot 
in World War II, he returned to civilian life. 
Because of racial prejudice, he was unable to find 
a position as a physicist, so he took a job teaching 
in a slum school in the heart of London's East 
End. His book is based on his actual experiences 



April 1968 



15 



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A film to bridge the so-called generation gap 



working with the underprivileged students in that 
school. 

Some may hold that To Sir, With Love is not a 
family movie. True, it undoubtedly will not ap- 
peal to the very young, but it has been extremely 
popular with school-age children, particularly 
teenagers. Anyone who has been in a classroom 
situation should enjoy it. Adults have been 
flocking to see it. 

It is a film that is warm and moving, humorous 
and gripping. One laughs often and sheds a few 
tears occasionally. Most of us will see a little 
of ourselves in the rebellious and unruly students. 
Many of us will relate with the problems, frus- 
trations, and challenges faced by the teacher. 

The selection of this film as the family movie 
of the year does not imply that everything in it 
meets Church standards. On the contrary, in 
portraying the people and conditions in the east 
London slum areas, it shows young people smok- 
ing and wearing dresses that are too short, hair 
that is too long, and clothes that are too dirty. It 
shows behavior that is unbecoming. Some foul 
language is used. It could possibly be argued that 
these few "undesirable" things do not have to be 
included in the story. But be that as it may, it is 
felt that the overall effect of the film is good and 
that it teaches many valuable lessons and may 
help bridge the so-called generation gap. 

The message it holds for young people is this : 
You will soon be adults and will be out in the 
world to make a living, to marry, and to become 
part of society. You should, therefore, face up to 



life, assume your responsibilities, develop your 
potential. ("Are you a hoodlum or are you a 
man?" the teacher asks a student who is in a 
scrape.) 

The lesson it teaches adults is this : Young 
people are basically good and they need to be lis- 
tened to. They deserve to have their questions 
answered. They need to be handled with firmness 
tempered with love. 

We commend the author of the book. We con- 
gratulate James Cavell for producing the motion 
picture, and we hold it up as evidence that movie 
goers do not favor films that are loaded with 
sex, perversion, and evil. To Sir, With Love was 
one of 1967's greatest hits and continues to be a 
strong box office attraction. For example, the 
film grossed $3,625,000 in ten weeks in 28 New 
York-New Jersey area theaters. This is reported 
to be the most money ever recorded for a film 
playing in one group of theaters in this part of 
the country. Similar reports come from wherever 
the film has been shown. Columbia Pictures re- 
vealed last September that the film had broken 
more house records than any other film in the 
company's history. 

Our first family movie of the year, The Sound 
of Music, is already one of the all-time money 
makers. Walt Disney proved over a period of 
many years that substantial amounts can be made 
on good, clean movies. We hope that our friends 
in the movie industry will produce more films like 
these — movies that box office receipts prove 
viewers want to see. O 



16 



Improvement Era 




Spring books for your 
reading pleasure 



1. OUT OF THE WEST 

by Lu Jones Waite $3.95 

A captivating novel that tells of a 
young Mormon girl emotionally torn 
by the conflict between her faith and 
her love for a non- Mormon. A fast- 
paced and absorbing story set against 
a ranch and rodeo background. 

2. TAKE A GIANT STEP $2.95 

by Jane Lund and Nancy Menlove 

A thoroughly enjoyable book for 
children containing fourteen original 
fables for today. These stories point 
out morals without being "preachy," 
and will awaken young people to good 
manners, industry, thrift, responsi- 
bility and other admirable qualities. 

REGISTER OF L.D.S. RECORDS 

by Laureen R. Jaussi and Gloria D. Chaston $3.95 

A valuable guide to the various Church records available, 
together with information on how to make use of them in 
genealogical research. Contains a register of call numbers to 
enable researchers to prepare a calendar of research prior to 
visiting the library. This volume will be a great help to 
those using branch genealogical libraries. 

THE ART OF BEING A MEMBER MISSIONARY 

by Florence G. Butler $2.95 

President McKay has issued the challenge "every member a 
missionary." This vital and motivating book tells us how we 
can prepare ourselves to be truly effective missionaries, and 
how we can help others with their missionary work. 

FOR BEHOLD YE ARE FREE by Lynn McKinlay $2.50 

Out of print but now reprinted, this worthwhile book is a 
stimulating discussion of the purpose of free agency. It 
impels the reader to thoughtful consideration of the great 
purpose of earth life in fitting us for a life in eternity. 

THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS by Robert Mullen $3.95 

A thoroughly objective and pleasing written survey of the 
history and present-day activities of the Latter-day Saints. 
As the author is a non-member, his informative investiga- 
tion into the origins and doctrines of the Church provides 
potential converts with a fair and unbiased appraisal. 



tteseret Book 

COM P A N Y 

44 EAST SO. TEMPLE AND AT COTTONWOOD MALL 

SALT LAKE CITY 

2472 WASHINGTON BLVD., OGDEN 

777 SO. MAIN ST., ORANGE, CALIFORNIA 



DESERET BOOK COMPANY, 44 East South Temple, Salt Lake City, 
Utah 84110 OR 777 South Main, Orange, California 92668. 

Circle item wanted: 12 3 4 5 



6 



Total cost $ , which includes 3W%> sales tax for 

Utah residents ordering from Salt Lake, or 5% sales tax for California 
residents ordering from Orange. 

Name 



Address - 

City State. 

April 68 Bra 



.Zip. 



■■L-:«^...^ ; J ' •;■• rs ill # , 




. ■ 



35 #ir£ 

By Carolyn Kaye Drew 

illustrated by Jerry Thompson 

( Inspired hy hymn 87, 

"O What Songs 

of the Heart") 



Carolyn Kaye Drew, English instructor at Oklahoma 
State University at Stillwater and teacher in the 
Church's auxiliaries, credits personal genealogical re- 
search for the inspiration of this story. 



t was to her a return to the 
only place in her child- 
hood that signified security and stability and all the 
joys of knowing she belonged to loved ones. 

It was also a farewell to the people who were 
leaving, to the place that was to be no more, and to 
the shy little girl with a soft smile who was becoming 
a mature individual. 

Just a few days before, Nannie's grandfather had 
died. The painful trip back for the funeral had been 
a farewell to the memories found in Oklahoma. At 
that time her aunts and uncles had decided that 
Grandma was too old to remain at the farm alone; 
she would be much happier and safer at a nearby 
rest home. And anyway, they said, the old farm must 
be sold so the new freeway could go through. 

Not only were the people and the places of Okla- 
homa changing, thought Nannie Walker, but she 
herself was changing, and so were others around her. 
In the fall she was going west to college; at about 
the same time her stepfather would be transferred 
to Germany, and her mother and half-sisters would 
accompany him. Surely this year she would have to 
find out who she was and what she believed in. 



18 



Improvement Era 



These thoughts had not really affected her too 
greatly until her last morning at her grandmother's 
home. Before that she had been too occupied with 
the business of the funeral and helping Grandma to 
pack. Now she suddenly felt somewhat lost and 
bewildered. 

That morning she came down the stairs, look- 
ing carefully at every board, at every bare patch on 
the wall, and listening closely to each individual 
sound— from her grandmother's heavy footsteps on the 
wooden floor to the pleasant lisping of the wind 
through minute cracks and defects. And always in 
the back of her mind was that anxious question that 
she found painful. 

Even when her grandmother said "good morning," 
Nannie could sense in the older woman's actions the 
dreadful aura of farewell, for her hands shook just a 
little more than usual, and her pale blue eyes darted 
quickly around the room: she also was saying 
good-bye. 

"Is everything about finished, Grandma?" Nannie 
asked as she reached for the warm, crisp strips of 
bacon. 

"Yes, child, I guess this useless old woman is ready 
to leave," she replied, but the voice was eager for a 
refutation of those words. 

"Old! My word, Grandma, if I had half your 
energy, I still wouldn't know as much as you or 
couldn't manage half as well." 

The grandmother looked pleased, for she knew 
Nannie's words came straight from her heart. The 
girl had always admired the skill and enthusiasm of 
the older woman, although some of that proud spirit 
had quieted in the last few days, and it now took 
longer for her to make decisions. 

"No, Grandma, no coffee. Just milk, please," Nan- 
nie said as her grandmother approached her with 
coffee pot and cup. 

The older woman looked puzzled and slightly hurt 
for a moment; then she remembered. "That's right, 
hon; you've given up coffee. Please forgive me. I 
guess I'm getting old, and I still remember how you 
looked forward to your first cup." 

Nannie had to laugh at this. She could remember 
well that cold October morning when she had raced 
downstairs to be met by a merry-eyed grandfather 
and grandmother. They had informed her that at 12 
she was finally old enough to have a small cup of 
coffee. How wonderful that black steaming liquid in 
the blue and white cup had looked — and how awful 
it had tasted! 

Then her eyes dropped as she remembered her rea- 
son for going west in the fall. Grandma also became 



silent. They were uncomfortable, for here was a bond 
they could not share. 

"Nannie, I know your mind is made up, and I've 
mentioned it before, but all of us would feel so much 
better if you wouldn't go. State university is just 50 
miles from here, and we could see you occasionally." 

Nannie's eyes fell when she saw the longing and 
love in her grandmother's eyes, but she knew she must 
remain firm on this second major decision in her 
life. 

There was so much she wanted to tell— about a 
girl friend who had asked questions and then taken 
her to church, about this wonderful new religion that 
had changed her life and personality, about a school 
where she could grow spiritually and scholastically 
with other fine young people. But she couldn't bring 
herself to say anything. It was a source of contention 
with her parents and relatives, whose hearts were not 
open to this strange new message, but Nannie herself 
found many excuses not to tell them of her beliefs. 

Breakfast was finished quickly, as Grandma rambled 
on about the details of how the house was to be torn 
down and how the highway would come straight 
through the land. 

"Nannie," she said, as they finished cleaning the 
kitchen and washing and packing the dishes, "your 
train will leave in about an hour, so ran on upstairs 
and get dressed. Then why don't you take a walk 
about the place one last time?" 

Mechanically Nannie obeyed, although her lips 
couldn't form an answer, because the words "last time" 
kept running through her mind. 

When she returned, Grandma was at the doorway 
looking out at the unplowed fields and the swaying 
branches of the elms and maples. Then she beckoned 
the girl and put an arm around her waist. 

"I said I wouldn't look anymore. I said I wouldn't 
mourn it, but I do, Nannie. Jesse and I came here 
when we got married, and I love every inch of the 
ground, every bit of it. His father and his father's 
father lived and died here. Your father was born 
here, and you've spent much time here. This is 
where the Walkers have grown up and lived and 
loved, but now we have to say good-bye to it, Nannie. 
It's going to be no more." 

Strange things were churning in Nannie's body, and 
she wanted to burst into tears, but she knew it would 
be too hard for both of them. 

"I had hoped, Nannie, that someday you would 
marry a boy around here, settle here, and raise your 
children here, but things change. The land's no 
more, and the Walkers aren't a family anymore. 
Now run along and say good-bye to every fence post 



April 1968 



19 



and every rock and everything that stands for Walker." 

Swiftly Nannie twisted by her grandmother and 
ran out to the porch. She knew that little teardrops 
were on Grandma's cheek — tears that she was too 
proud to let her granddaughter see. 

Nannie took several deep breaths; then, feeling 
better, she began a final inspection of home. 

And it was home. After her father died, when she 
was two, Nannie had come to stay with her grand- 
parents until her mother was able to cope with a 
small, active child. Through the years, her summers 
had been spent here. After Mother married John, 
Nannie had even stayed on the farm another two full 
years. Then, in all the moving that she had done 
during the next ten years, her grandparents alone 
had remained the same— lovely, kind-hearted souls— 
and the farm had remained the same safe haven. 
Now. . . . 

She examined everything with a fierce intensity— 
the old well, overgrown now with wild flowers; the 
weedy vegetable patch; the lilacs; the tool shed, 
unpainted and empty; the empty chicken house. "I 
must remember this ... I must remember that." In 
a few moments she was trying to will all these 
memories into the essence of her soul, where they 
would remain forever. 

"Dearest God, this must change, and I must change, 
but please don't ever let me become indifferent to 
all it means to me, to all that I shall become!" 

Then, glancing at her watch, she realized she had 
only a few minutes left, and still she hadn't been to 
the most important place of all. She began to run 
toward it, but then returned to the lilacs. With a wild 
sense of abandonment she plucked an armload of the 
blooms, and thus armed she walked to the Walker 
family cemetery. 

Two gnarled old trees stood guard over five gen- 
erations of Walkers. As she opened the iron gate, 
Nannie felt the hush that had always affected her 
here and also— more strongly than ever— the unrest 
that had bothered her since she had heard the name 
"Mormon." 

She looked around at the graves of those she loved 
and those she would have liked to have loved; then 
carefully she placed a branch of lilacs by each marker. 
Here was the grave of Aunt Evelyn, who had died of 
cancer four years ago. Here were the graves of the 
father she hadn't known except from a snapshot or 
two, the brother who had died after only a few hours 
of life. The rest were Walkers, some known only by 
name or reputation. In the far corner was the new 
grave of her grandfather, where she placed the last 
of the lilacs, the prettiest. 



The new highway wouldn't touch this place, but 
someday it would be forgotten and lost. Someday 
she too would be forgotten and lost by her de- 
scendants. Then the dam broke, and the tears flowed 
freely. She fell forward at the foot of Grandpa's 
grave, and the feelings kept so long inside were out 
at last. 

"Oh, Grandpa, Grandpa, Grandpa, I love you so 
much, Grandpa! You were so good to me, and I do 
love you, but I never told you. I love you and 
everyone here! I am you, Grandpa, and I'm a part of 
Daddy and my brother and Aunt Evelyn and all the 
Walkers. I love you so and someday I know we'll be 
together — all of us. We shall meet ne'er to part- 
never — because a prophet of the Lord has promised 
this." Nannie sat up and checked her tears. 

"But I've got a lot to do first, an awful lot. I have 
to find out so much about you, and then there are 
ordinances that I've heard about since I joined the 
Church. I love you— you're all good people— and I've 
held back your progress. Because I love you, Grand- 
pa, and because I know I shall love all my kindred 
dead just as much, I shall do my genealogy. That's 
what a family is, not a place. Nothing's changed. A 
family will be forever!" 

A sudden stillness came over her, and she felt a 
strange peace. A question that had been asked had 
been answered, and anxiety was gone. Never before 
had she felt so calm and rested, nor so eager to give 
of herself. When at last she could see Grandpa and 
all her loved ones who had passed on before, she 
would surely greet them with a kiss and with no 
shame for things undone. She had had the chance to 
hear and accept the gospel and to be baptized, and 
her honored dead would have the same opportunity. 

She heard the horn of Uncle Carl's car and knew 
her bags were loaded and that he and Grandma were 
ready to take her to the train. After drying her 
eyes and dusting off her skirt, she rose to leave. But 
as she closed the gate, she stopped with her hand on 
the gatepost. 

Yes, there were many things to ask Grandma and 
Aunt Alice, and there was much careful research to be 
done, but she also had another obligation— to the 
living. There was a 15-minute drive to the depot, and 
that was plenty of time to talk to Grandma and even 
to Uncle Carl. Why had she been afraid to talk over 
these things when they had shared everything else? 
Why keep from them in this life the most precious 
gift of all? 

Hers was a great privilege, being the first of her 
family to hear the gospel, and hers was the privilege 
of sharing it with all those she loved most. o 



20 



Improvement Era 




Reprinted again by popular demand! 




4. GOSPEL THROUGH THE 
AGES by Milton R. Hunter 

Presents the story of the plan of life 
and salvation instituted in the spirit 
world before man was placed jpon 
the earth. Discusses the revelations 
of eternal truths. $3.50 

5. IF A MAN DIE 

by Gordon Allred 

Takes you from pre-mortal life through 
death and into the spirit world. It is 
punctuated throughout by quotations 
from leading Church authorities. 
Thought-provoking reading. $3.50 



6. GLORY OF THE SUN 

by Sterling W. Sill 

A volume rich and full of the author's 

most popular and easy-tounderstand 

messages, dramatic illustrations, and 

motivating thoughts. Soul-stirring 

philosophy beautifully stated. ., „ 

$3.75 

7. LEHI IN THE DESERT (and 
the World of the Jaredites) 

by Hugh Nibley 

The fascinating history of the land of 
Jerusalem and the Egyptian world as 
well as the Arabian peninsula. Includes 



rich background material to reinforce 
the truth of the Book of Mormon. 

$3.50 

8. GENEALOGICAL RESEARCH 
STANDARDS by Derek Harland 

Lists in detail, in a simple, yet compre- 
hensive style, the steps of a research 
campaign. Contains a study of source 
materials and their use. Essential for 
every student of genealogy. 

$2.95 



9. LARRY 
YOUTH 



THOUGHTS OF 



compiled by Fred Turney 

The diary and letters of a college 
student. The frank expression of a 
young man's ideals, philosophy, and 
problems. Inspiring reading for youth 
and parents. $2.00 

10. PAUL'S LIFE AND LETTERS 
by Dr. Sidney B. Sperry 

A monumental volume to help Latter- 
day Saints better appreciate the great 
Apostle Paul's testimony and contri- 
bution to the world. Outlines the writ- 
ings, teachings, and experiences of 
Paul. $3.50 



BOOKCRAFT 




1186 South Main / Salt Lake City, Utah 84101 m 

Please send the following circled book(s) for which I enclose check or money order 

in the amount Of $ (Residents of Utah add 3W% sales tax.) 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 

NAME 

ADDRESS 

CITY, STATE, ZIP 

BHIHKI3HwBMH9wflMRHBHBHHBMBH^BI 




April 1968 



21 





The 622-foot Tower of the Americas looms in background as men 
place Angel Moroni statue in front of pavilion. 




Don LeFevre, a member of the Bountiful (Utah) South 
Stake mission presidency, is information coordinator 
for the Mormon Pavilion at HemisFair '68. 



n 1718, when Spain founded the settlement of 
San Antonio in what we know today as the state of 
Texas, the Prophet Joseph Smith's birth was still 87 
years in the future, and the restoration of the gospel 
of Jesus Christ was more than a century away. 

In 1836, when Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, and 186 
other heroes were giving their lives for Texas free- 
dom at San Antonio's historic battle of the Alamo, 
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was 
an infant of six years; the majority of the Saints were 
in Ohio, where the first temple of the latter days had 
just been built and dedicated. 

In 1845, when the Republic of Texas entered the 
Union as the twenty-eighth state and San Antonio 
was already 127 years old, the Prophet Joseph had 
been in his grave a year, and the famed westward 
trek of the Mormon pioneers was not far off. 

The restored gospel was introduced in the state of 
Texas in 1843, and today there are more than 33,000 
members in eight stakes and two missions within the 
state. 

These interesting parallels in the histories of San 
Antonio, Texas, and the Church will go a step further 



22 



Improvement Era 




San Anton/o, Texas, center of HemisFair '68, celebrates its 250th anniversary during a six-month long fiesta. 



this spring when the aging but charming city of San 
Antonio kicks off a six-month run of the biggest fair 
ever held in the southwestern United States— 
HemisFair 1968. 

The opening day is April 6, which coincidentally is 
the 138th anniversary of the formal organization of 
the Church of the latter days. Appropriately enough, 
HemisFair '68 will feature among its dozens of fasci- 
nating exhibits a pavilion operated by the Church. 

HemisFair '68 is a $156 million exposition combin- 
ing the gaiety of a festival, the vigor and spontaneity 
of the frontier, the sophisticated adventure of Space 
Age technology, and the eternal import of the gospel 
of Jesus Christ. 

Described as a "six-month-long fiesta along the 
historic Paseo del Rio," a river winding through the 
heart of San Antonio, the fair has scores of govern- 
mental and private exhibitors who have assembled 
paintings and sculpture from throughout the world 
to illustrate the theme, "The Confluence of Civiliza- 
tions in the Americas." 

This theme fits the Church's exhibit "probably 
better than it does any other exhibit in the fair," 
according to Elder Bernard P. Brockbank, Assistant 
to the Council of the Twelve and managing director 
of the pavilion. 

"We believe that Jesus Christ is the Savior of all 
mankind," Elder Brockbank says. "He revealed his 
teachings to the people of the Western Hemisphere, 
just as he did to those in the Old World." 

Elder Brockbank will manage the pavilion under 
the direction of the First Presidency; the Church 
Information Committee, with Elder Mark E. Petersen 
of the Council of the Twelve as chairman; and the 
exhibits-in-fairs subcommittee, with Elder Gordon B. 
Hinckley of the Council of the Twelve as chairman. 

Cooperating with Elder Brockbank will be Howard 
J. Marsh, Regional Representative of the Twelve in 
Texas and Louisiana, President Roland C. Bremer of 



the San Antonio Stake, and President Dean L. Larsen 
of the Texas South Mission, whose headquarters are 
in San Antonio. 

President Bremer, a descendant of one of the early 
Latter-day Saint families in Texas, has also been 
involved in the overall planning for HemisFair '68 and 
is a member of its Religious Expression Committee. 

The Mormon Pavilion, a structure of 4,000 square 
feet, is in a choice location on the 93-acre fair site in 
downtown San Antonio. It stands in the shadow of 
the giant HemisFair landmark, the Tower of the 
Americas, a spire that rises 622 feet above the fair. 

A few hundred yards to the north of the Mormon 
Pavilion is the famed Alamo, a monument to one of 
the great battles fought for Texas independence. 

The focal point of the pavilion's exterior will be a 
large gold figure of the Angel Moroni standing atop 
a tall pylon. The fiber glass statue is the same one 
that towered above the Mormon Pavilion at the New 
York World's Fair in 1964 and 1965, and is a replica 
of the Cyrus Dallin statue that has stood atop the 
center eastern spire of the Salt Lake Temple since 
1892. 

The pavilion will feature a series of displays that 
will revolve around the theme "Man's Search for 
Happiness," with a sub-theme, "The Savior Came to 
America." This sub-theme will be graphically illus- 
trated by a large color translite of a new painting 
by John Scott, noted American illustrator, depicting 
the Savior in the midst of the ruins of Zarahemla, 
and surrounded by those in America who had sur- 
vived the holocaust following the Lord's crucifixion 
in the Old World. This painting will be featured 
both at the entrance to the pavilion and in one of the 
displays inside. 

Translites of other paintings, previously used at 
either the New York World's Fair Mormon Pavilion 
or the Temple Square Visitors' Center, are exhibited: 
Joseph Smith in prayer in the Sacred Grove; the 



April 1968 



23 




A few hundred yards north of the pavilion is the famed Alamo, site Monorail track, which circles the 93-acre fair site, runs near the 
of a battle fought for Texas independence. Church's pavilion, shown in the background. 



Prophet receiving the plates from the Angel Moroni; 
bestowal of the Melchizedek Priesthood by the hands 
of Peter, James, and John; Jesus Christ and the 
original twelve apostles; and six historic religious 
reformers and their thoughts about a restoration of 
the gospel. A large translite of the new painting 
of Mormon (see cover and cover note) is also fea- 
tured in the pavilion. 

Visitors to the pavilion find the structure set on 
tastefully landscaped grounds. Once inside, they 
enter a mirrored room that features a series of mir- 
rors with endless reflection. Recorded narration tells 
of the Savior and his mission, and additional impact 
is given by the presence of a large picture of the 
Savior, which is also reflected in the mirrors. 

Another new feature to the pavilion is a life-size 
statue of the Prophet Joseph Smith, which was re- 
cently created in Italian marble to duplicate the 
original on Temple Square by Mahonri Young. The 
statue was created in Florence, Italy. 

Visitors to the pavilion may also see the much- 
heralded motion picture, Man's Search for Happiness, 
which has had great impact on audiences wherever 
it has been shown. The film conveys the meaning 
of man's true purpose in life. A Spanish transla- 
tion of the film's dialogue will be available via special 
earphone headsets for non-English-speaking visitors. 

The main exhibit on display at the pavilion, as at the 
New York World's Fair, will be the missionary guides 
who will take visitors through the pavilion. About 
50 missionaries, many of them bi-lingual for Spanish- 
speaking visitors, will guide visitors through the 
building, bearing their testimonies, giving explanations, 
and answering questions. As often has been noted, the 
young, wholesome, sincere missionaries are the most 
successful and meaningful exhibits the Church could 
display. 

One of the special features of the Church's in- 
volvement at HemisFair will be two concerts by the 



Mormon Tabernacle Choir on July 23 and 24 in San 
Antonio's new concert hall on the HemisFair grounds. 
The choir will also perform in Dallas, Texas, on July 
22, and will fly on to Mexico City for an engagement 
after the HemisFair performances. 

The HemisFair officials have officially declared 
July 24 as Mormon Pioneer Day, and the choir ap- 
pearance is expected to highlight the festivities for 
that day. 

The fair corporation has also declared April 10 as 
Mormon Founders Day, and several of the General 
Authorities are expected to be on hand for the occa- 
sion. The April 10 date was selected when it was 
concluded by Fair officials that the actual anni- 
versary of the Church's organization, April 6, might 
be an inconvenient commemorative day, since it is 
the opening day of the Fair, and, in addition, general 
conference would be in session in Salt Lake City. 

There will be other special events at the Mormon 
Pavilion during the April to October run of the fair. 
Nearly a million visitors are expected to view the 
Church exhibit. Hopefully, a good percentage of 
them will come to a fuller realization of the true 
purpose of life and gain a desire to embark on a fruit- 
ful path in man's search for eternal happiness. O 



Telephone workmen on the HemisFair '68 fairgrounds discovered an 
early copy of Elder Parley P. Pratt's "Voice of Warning" tract, 
according to President Roland C. Bremer of the San Antonio Stake. 
The tract had been given to a San Antonio family by an Elder 
Frank Know/ton about 1898 or 1900. Elder Know/ton, who was 
serving in the Southwestern States Mission with headquarters in 
Kansas City, is thought to be one of the first missionaries to serve 
in San Antonio. Telephone officials gave the pamphlet to San 
Antonio Stake officials. 



i ,.:.. *J i :: " t • ^ « " ' 9 ....... 



24 



Improvement Era 



Your Choice - $1.49 

when you join the LDS Books Club! 




1. Gospel Through 
the Ages 3.50 




2. Answers to Book 
of Mormon 
Questions 3.50 



. l/ou/m/ 



3. Bigger Than 
Yourself 3.25 




4. Book of Mormon 
Testifies 3.50 




5. The Day They 
Martyred the 
Prophet 3.25 




6. Faith of a 
Scientist 3.0i 



tAMII.Y 

NKiHT 

RKADKK 




7. Family Night 
Reader 2.50 




Fate of the 
Persecutors of 
Joseph Smith 3.50 







RAWEST. 






I he ' " ';:«" 

Magic ot 
Mtormonism 



9. His Many 
Mansions 2.95 



10. House of the 
Lord 3.50 



11. Joseph Smith 
by His Mother 
3.50 



12. Just to 
Illustrate 3.25 



13. Law of the 
Harvest 3.50 



14. Leadership, 
Vol. I 3.75 



15. Leadership, 
Vol. II 3.75 



16. Magic of 
Mormonism 3.50 



Mastet'* 



17. The Master's* 
Touch 3.50 



MATTH£W 
COWLEY 

* \(ml ofjolth 




18. Matthew 
Cowley, Man of 
Faith 3.50 



19. Melvin J. 
Ballard— Crusader 
3.50 







flPEWty 

; gftjSBD 




20. Missouri 
Persecutions 3.50 



21. Motherhood, A 
Partnership with 
God 3.50 



22. Oliver Cowdery 
-2nd Elder & 
Scribe 3.50 



23. Pearl of Great 
Price Commentary 
3.50 



24. Penny Earned 
3.00 



YOUR FAITH 
IN GOD 1 



25. Science and 
Your Faith in God 
3.50 




26. Gospel and 
Man's Relationship 
to Diety 3.25 





E 



27. Meet the 
Mormons 2.95 



28. Our Moral 
Challenge 2.95 



8nVl 



29. Answers to 
Gospel Questions, 
Vols. 1-5 2.95 ea. 



TEACH 



30. You Too Can 
Teach 3.00 





31. The Character 
of Jesus 3.25 



32. The Valley of 
Tomorrow 3.50 




33. Here is 
Brigham 4.75 



Cherished 
Experiences 



34. Cherished 
Experiences 3.1 




35. Home Memories 
of Pres. David 0. 
McKay 2.95 




36. Restoration of 
All Things 3.50 



37. Teachings of 
the Prophet Joseph 
Smith 3.50 






38. What Do 
Now? 3.50 



39. Inspirational 
Talks for Youth 
2.95 



40. Stories from 
Mormon History 
3.50 



How to Join 

Choose at least two books from those pictured 
here. Send your check or money order for your 
first selection(s) at the regular listed price, plus 
$1.49 for your bonus book.* Each month you will 
receive reviews of several books. You agree to 
purchase a minimum of four regular selections or 
alternates during the next twelve months at the 
regular advertised price. (Premium books for 
joining LDS Books Club do not qualify as regular 
Club selections or alternates.) You may resign at 
any time after purchasing four books. For each 
four books accepted, you will receive a valuable 
bonus book free— a savings of 20%. 

•Offer good until July 1, 1968 




LDS BOOKS CLUB, INC. 

P.O. BOX 400 

1188 South Main 

Salt Lake City, Utah 84110 

Please enroll me as a member of the LOS Books Club, Inc. Enclosed 

is my check or money order for $ for the following 

circled books: 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 

Name 

Address 

City............. State.. ...Zip....;. 



April 1968 



25 




Taming Financial Folly Into Fainily Fan 



(Part 4) 





By Quinn G. McKay, Ph.D. 

Dean, School of Business and Economics, 
Weber State College 



k ow much does it 
cost to go to 
college? In these clays of rising 
costs, some despair of just trying 
to make ends meet. Food prices 
are increasing, costs of building a 
home are going up, clothes carry 
higher prices than previously, col- 
lege educations are increasingly 
expensive, and the projections look 
even worse. Because of this dis- 
couraging outlook, many parents 
do not encourage their children to 
go to college, and many young 
people who can find a job that 
pays enough for them to meet a 
monthly car payment feel that 
higher education is not worth it. 

College does seem expensive. 
Except where the first two years 
are tuition free, state college fees 
are usually more than $300 tuition 
for nine months, plus books, equip- 
ment, and other special fees. Added 



to that are transportation costs 
when one lives at home, and board 
and room when one lives away 
from home. Should one choose to 
go to a private school, tuition alone 
can be $1,800, plus several hundred 
dollars for books, fees, and board 
and room. From this perspective, 
a college education may seem out 
of reach for many. 

Nevertheless, the true cost of 
education is relatively inexpensive. 
In fact, it may be far more expen- 
sive not to get an education. It 
is estimated that the future earn- 
ings of a student who goes to col- 
lege may be as much as $557.00 for 
every day spent in college. No, 
he does not get a check for this 
amount, but there is a high correla- 
tion between education and life- 
time earning power. 

The U.S. Census Bureau recently 
published a widely discussed book- 
let that projects the earnings until 
age 65 for (1) 22-year-old men 
with eighth grade education; (2) 
those with four years of high 
school, and (3) those with four or 
more years of college. The projec- 
tions are treated in 46 pages of 
tables and calculations in "Present 
Value of Estimated Lifetime Earn- 
ings," available for 40 cents from 
Superintendent of Documents, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. The fol- 
lowing analysis is based on "actual 
average earnings, from census fig- 
ures, with projections for the future 
under varying circumstances." 



Years of Education 



Average Lifetime 
Earnings 



Four years of college 
or more 



$1,125,000 



26 



Improvement Era 




High school graduate 625,000 

Eighth grade only 445,000 

Astounding as these projections 
may appear, one should realize that 
43 years ago, in 1925, most people 
would have thought our present- 
day average salaries and earning 
potential impossible to attain, if not 
slightly ludicrous. As a matter of 
fact, a careful check of the increase 
in average salaries from 1925 to 
1968 will disclose that the projec- 
tions for the future are no more 
impossible than present-day salaries 
would have seemed in 1925. 

Thus, 43 years from now the ex- 
pected average lifetime earnings 
of a college graduate are projected 
at $502,000 more than a high 
school graduate. This amounts to 
just about $557.00 for every day of 
school that it takes to get five years 
of college education. ( It is assumed 
that those with four years of col- 
lege or more will attend on an 
average five years of college.) 
Those who continue on and earn 
higher degrees can expect even 
greater financial rewards. With 
such a great reward it does not 
seem to be wise for people to bor- 
row to buy cars, television sets, and 
carpets and yet feel they cannot 
afford college. Surely the eco- 
nomic return alone more than 
justifies every effort for the quali- 
fied to go to college, including 
borrowing funds if necessary. 

Often there come to the author's 
office people who graduated from 
high school ■ 15 or 20 years ago. 
Their story is nearly always the 
same. "When I finished high school 
17 years ago, I got a job that paid 



me more per week than my father 
was earning, so when he told me 
to go to college I thought he was 
just foolish. Now I find I'm at the 
end of the line. I can expect no 
promotion, and I dislike what I am 
doing. How can I get back to 
school and do what I should have 
done 17 years ago? I have four 
children, and to keep enough com- 
ing in for them on my earnings and 
still go to school looks impossible. 
What can I do?" 

This is an extremely frustrating 
experience, and for many it seems 
irresolvable. Another young father 
faced the same dilemma. He had 
a semi-skilled job that provided a 
minimum income for his family of 
six children, and none of his rela- 
tives were in a position to provide 
anything more than moral support. 
Nevertheless, 15 years after he was 
graduated from high school he en- 
rolled as a freshman in a state 
college. He worked nights, morn- 
ings, and weekends. His wife and 
family tightened their economic 
belts ( she did not go to work ) , and 
four years later this family now of 
seven children witnessed their 
father receiving a bachelor's de- 
gree in education. 

The father may not be getting 
rich, but he is earning significantly 
more than he would have been; 
and, more important, he is now 
enjoying what he is doing. Further- 
more, he has been able to take 
advantage of opportunities that 
would never have been his without 
an education. 

Yes, education can be picked up 
later, but that is the hard way, and 
few actually do it. How much 



easier to obtain an education after 
high school, when it is easiest. 

Not everyone should go to col- 
lege. Everyone should, however, 
get some education beyond high 
school. By interest, temperament, 
or ability some young people are 
not suited for college. Today 
numerous other kinds of educa- 
tions are available. In special voca- 
tional and technical schools one 
can gain skills in any number of 
areas that will prepare one to earn 
a very good livelihood and find 
stimulating work. In many skilled 
areas jobs are going begging. Vo- 
cational areas requiring less than 
four years' training include com- 
puter programming, electronics, 
instrument repair, nursing, automo- 
tive technology, secretarial science, 
welding, refrigeration, and many 
others. 

Young people should not seek 
education just to get a job now. 
They should obtain an education 
that will help prepare them to do 
what they want to do when they 
are 45, at the prime of their careers. 
Everything changes so fast that it 
is difficult to know what will be 
needed 20 years hence. Education 
is probably the best way of assum- 
ing that the changes can be met 
successfully. 

What a person chooses for his 
life's work is a key factor in effect- 
ing income. The following chart, 
based on projections made earlier 
than the U.S. Census Bureau's 
figures cited above, shows expected 
lifetime earnings by occupation. 
While these figures are lower than 
Census Bureau's, they do show that 
occupation choice affects income. 



April 1968 



27 



ATTENTION, 




CHOIR 




CONDUCTORS! 




Suggested LDS Choir Anthems 


Abide With Me, 'Tis Eventide 


Gates 


M 


All Glory, Laud and Honor 


Schreiner 


M 


All in the April Evening 


Robertson 


M 


America the Beautiful 


Asper 


M 


Awake! Arise! 


Stickles 


E 


Beautiful Zion for Me 


Daynes 


E : 


Bless Ye the Lord 


Ivanoff 


E 


Brother James Air 


Jacob 


M 


Come, Come Ye Saints 


Robertson 


D 


Come, Come Ye Saints 


Cornwall 


M 


For the Beauty of the Earth 


Davis 


M 


Glory to God 


Kessel 


M 


God is Holy 


Eberlein 


M 


God So Loved the World 


Stainer 


E 


Gospel Gives Unbounded 
Strength, The 


Schreiner 


E 


Gospel Is Truly the Power 
of God 


Schreiner 


M 


He Watching Over Israel 


Mendelssohn 


M 


Here in This House 


Howorth 


M 


Holy City 


Arnold 


MD i 


How Beautiful Upon the 
Mountains 


Harker 


MD 


I Shall Not Pass Again 
This Way 


Effinger 


E 


If Ye Love Me, Keep My 
Commandments 


Carlbon 


M 


In My Father's House 


MacDermid 


M 


Jerusalem, Turn Thee 


Gounod 


M 


Jesus, Name of Wondrous Love 


Titcomb 


M 


King of Love My Shepherd Is 


Shelley 


D 


Let Not Your Heart Be 
Troubled 


Foster 


M 


Let Us Oft Speak Kind Words 


Gates 


E 


Lo, My Shepherd Is Divine 


Haydn 


MD 


Lo, What a Beauteous Rose 


Praetorius 


M 


Lord Bless You and Keep You 


Lutkin 


E 


Lord Is a Mighty God, The 


Mendelssohn 


M 


Lord Hear Our Prayer 


Verdi 


MD 


Lord Is My Shepherd, The 


Richards 


M 


Lord's Prayer 


Gates 


M 


Lord's Prayer 


Robertson 


MD 


May Now Thy Spirit 


Trehorne 


M 


My Redeemer Lives 


Gates 


M 


Now Let the Heavens Be 
Joyful 


Chambers 


M | 


Now Thank We All Our God 


Holler 


E 


Now Thank We All Our God 


Bach 


M 


Brother Man 


Robertson 


M 


Cast Thy Burden Upon 
the Lord 


Aulbach 


E 


Come, Let Us Worship 


Mendelssohn 


M 


God, Our Help in Ages 
Past 


Cornwall 


M 


Lofty Mountains 


Cannon 


M 


Loving Savior, Slain for Us 


Auber 


M 


Worship the King 


Cornwall 


M 


Onward Ye People 


Sibelius 


M 


Open Our Eyes 


Macfarlane 


D 


Open the Gates 


Jenkins 


M 


Poor Wayfaring Man of Grief 


Durham 


M 


Son of Man 


Robertson 


M 


Spirit of God 


Neidlinger 


M 


Still, Still With Thee 


Shelley 


M 


Thanks to Thee, Lord 


Handel 


M 


That Blessed Easter Morn 


Caldwell 


E 


Verdant Meadows 


Handel 


M 


We Are Watchmen 


Schreiner 


MD 


With a Voice of Singing 


Shaw 


M 


The Letters E, M, MD and 
medium, medium difficult, 


D indicate easy, 
and difficult. 


Average Price is 25c to 30c 




Ora Pate Stewart's fj 


)0fA/ri 


T 


"To a Child" »A 


w tUUUV I 


/ 


Solo or Trio ^^ 


Music Co 




50c each 

IDAHO 


P. 0- Box 2009 
FALLS. IDAHO 83401 



28 



Expected Lifetime Earnings* 


Occupation Lifetime Earnings 


(Men, 


age 18-64) 


Doctors 


$717,000 


Lawyers 


621,000 


Managers and Proprie 




tors (with college 




degrees) 


593,000 


Dentists 


589,000 


Natural Scientists 




Geologists 


446,000 


Biologists 


310,000 


Social Scientists 




Economists 


412,000 


Psychologists 


335,000 


Engineers 




Aeronautical 


395,000 


Civil 


335,000 


Teachers 




College 


324,000 


High School 


261,000 


Elementary 


232,000 


Accountants 


313,000 


Electricians 


251,000 


Airplane Mechanics 


248,000 


Plumbers 


236,000 


Carpenters 


185,000 


Radio and TV 




Mechanics 


183,000 


Clergymen 


175,000 


"Reprinted by permission from Bu. 


;/ness Week. 



Occupational and professional 
choices are prime factors deter- 
mining a family's economic well- 
being. One should be very careful 
about choosing his life's work just 
because of the money involved; 
however, one should find out the 
characteristics, skills, abilities, and 



environment involved in each pos- 
sible career. Today there are many 
helps for young people facing these 
choices. 

High school and post-high school 
institutions as well as employment 
agencies can provide testing ser- 
vices, counseling, and printed in- 
formation that can be of great 
help. 

Young people could also in- 
quire of men in their ward or stake 
who are engaged in different 
occupations and find out exactly 
what these men do in their jobs. 
What are the attractive and un- 
attractive aspects of their work? 

People should choose to do what 
they will enjoy, and if it also pro- 
vides good income, so much the 
better. It is also interesting that 
what people learn to do very well, 
they most frequently come to enjoy. 

On one occasion a life insurance 
underwriter told the author, "I feel 
sorry for anyone who does not sell 
insurance." The author, though a 
strong believer in insurance, feels 
sorry for those who are not en- 
gaged in the business of education 
but who must make a living by 
selling insurance. Each person 
should learn the joy and excite- 
ment that come from doing what 
he regards as satisfying, no matter 
what it is, as long as it is honor- 
able. He must also provide the 
necessary material well-being for 
those who are dependent upon him. 

Without becoming obsessed with 
an overpowering urge to "make 
money," Latter-day Saints can im- 
prove their economic status by 
making wise decisions about educa- 
tion and selection of an occupation. 



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April 1968 



29 



Teaching 

Conducted by the 
Church School System 



Personal Confrontation 
With Fundamental 
Questions 

By U. Carlisle Hunsaker 



U. Carlisle Hunsaker is an instructor at the Institute 
of Religion adjacent to the University of Utah cam- 
pus and a doctoral candidate. 





n a 1960 poll of more 
than 5,000 students attend- 
ing 11 American universities, 80 percent answered in 
the affirmative to the question, "Do you personally 
feel you need to believe in some sort of religious faith 
or philosophy?" Considered alone, the response to this 
question is encouraging; but as attention is focused 
on the entire study, it becomes apparent that these 
same students regarded religion chiefly as a means 
of private happiness. They were rarely decisive in 
their thinking concerning religious truths and their 
implications for everyday living. When asked the 
question, "What three things or activities in your 
life do you expect to give you the most satisfaction?" 
only four percent indicated religion as one of the 
three. 1 

It is disquieting to note similar patterns of thought 
pertaining to the place of religion in life emerging 
from a 1957 study, which led to the conclusion that 
students are "gloriously contented" and "unabashedly 
self-centered" and "intend to look out for themselves 
first and expect others to do likewise." 2 

These studies and others like them can be important 
sources of insight to those who desire to make sound 



30 



Improvement Era 



contributions to the well-organized teaching program recognized to be relevant to personal everyday 

of the Church. As teachers we must never be con- experience. 

tent in merely knowing that our students have faith. Personal confrontation with evil— testing the mettle 

Having faith is not enough! Eighty percent of 5,000 of one's soul— is also inevitable in one's life. During 

students had faith — apparently a faith that had little such times of testing, the performance of those who 

relevance to their major decisions and objectives in have not verified Christian doctrines for themselves 

life. Today's crying need is for examined, intelligent is usually less than impressive, and often is tragic. Far 

faith. too many gospel discussions are conducted in which 

The major concepts of productive, mature faith are the primary concern of the teacher is to allow students 
always arrived at as one answers for himself the basic to glibly exchange a set of memorized answers, con- 
questions about the meaning of life. Religion is elusive statements, or cliches that have been borrowed 
seldom successfully taught in the abstract. It becomes from others. Thus, a careful observer reluctantly ad- 
of vital, absorbing interest when meaningful answers mits that the development of the ability in students to 
and meaningful questions are tied together in a co- select and confirm truth on a first-hand basis is 
herent body of thought. The teacher's primary task, apparently of too little concern on the part of many 
then, is to move students to a personal confrontation teachers. 

with fundamental questions. Students who leave the This is given further emphasis by concentrating 

classroom of a teacher who has failed to meet this upon the statement earlier alluded to: Jesus Christ is 

challenge usually come to feel that religion is one of our Savior. What questions could a teacher use to 

the minor interests of life. Studies previously cited lead a student to discover this answer personally 

seem to support such a contention. rather than report a mere collection of words? The 

One often hears such statements as "Jesus the Christ student would need to consider some of the follow- 

is our Savior." But how often is this statement heard ing: "From what do I need to be saved?" "How are 

or expressed with understanding of its implications these dangers and temptations manifested in my daily 

on the part of both the speaker and the listener? For life?" "What evidence is there that man without the 

such a declaration to be understood and accepted, it saving power of Christ is unable to cope with these 

must become the personally discovered answer to difficulties?" "How does Christ save?" 

one's own question or series of questions. A conclu- Perhaps for a moment it would be helpful to con- 

sion, such as one's awareness that Christ is one's sider one of the questions. How, in fact, does Christ 

Savior, requires, because of its profundity, a searching save? The answer to this question becomes dynamic 

that goes far beyond our tendency to look up answers in a student's life only to the degree that the question 

in the back of a book. is posed in individual terms. Thus, the answer is 

Statements such as the following need personal in- meaningful only to the extent that the need for it is 

volvement for their complete understanding: "Jesus felt. The teacher's task is to help students internalize 

Christ is the author of my salvation." "The sacrament the question so that they ask, "How does Christ 

is an important ordinance." "Faith is the first principle save me?" 

of the gospel." "One must observe the first principles A short review will be helpful at this point. Joseph 

of the gospel." "Man is eternal, uncreated." "God Smith taught that salvation is achieved by gaining 

relates to man within the context of eternal law." power sufficient to conquer all of one's enemies. The 

"Man is free." "The glory of God is intelligence." word "enemies" is used here to identify those influ- 

These statements are representative of the kinds made ences or weaknesses that tend to impede the activation 

by many of us who attend gospel classes throughout of man's inherent embryonic powers of godhood. 

the Church. However, such statements need to be Perhaps the specific enemies encountered in life can 

the result of personal answers to questions, the impli- be classified under general headings of death, sin, and 

cations of which are at least partially understood and ignorance. » 



April 1968 31 



"Today's crying need is for examined, intelligent faith 



The scriptures are replete with statements that contribute to your personal power to overcome sin?" 

support the concept that salvation is an achievement The writer's experience indicates that this question 

that demands personal power. Students need to be will be followed by a rather long, telling silence. The 

inspired with the prospects of personally developing question seems to be an unfamiliar one. If these 

such power. In his epistle to the Romans Paul de- same students were asked, on the other hand, if they 

dared that the gospel "is the power of God unto believed in the efficacy of the atonement, they would 

salvation. . . ." (Rom. 1:16.) In his epistle to the more than likely answer in the affirmative. 

Ephesians he spoke of the possibility of being Let us return, then, to our efforts to help students 

"strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner arrive at a more profound understanding of the 

man." (Eph. 3:16.) atonement and, in so doing, learn some fundamental 

We sense a clue to the greatness of Nephi as rules of learning. Two facets of the atonement are 
we read the following words, which he uttered most commonly emphasized: (1) the universal appli- 
during a period of renewed resolve: "Awake, my cation of the atonement whereby all men are re- 
soul! No longer droop in sin. Rejoice, O my heart, deemed from physical death, and (2) the propitiatory 
and give place no more for the enemy of my soul." aspect of the atonement wherein the demands of 
(2 Ne. 4:28.) Nephi spoke with firm resolve because divine justice are appeased if man repents. In the 
his religion supplied the answers to questions related words of Elder James E. Talmage: 
to the meaning of his life, and because his religion ". . . The first effect is to secure to all mankind 
helped him acquire power over the "enemies" of life, alike, exemption from the penalty of the fall, thus 

These statements suggest an approach to teaching providing a plan of General Salvation. The second 

the saviorhood of Christ that will permit students to effect is to open a way for Individual Salvation 

realize that in a sense Jesus does not save man from whereby mankind may secure remission of personal 

sin or ignorance. Rather, Jesus is the source of that sins." 3 

personal power by which man saves himself. This Again the question, "How does the atonement help 

statement could easily be misunderstood. Certainly man to secure remission of personal sins?" The writer 

man needs divine assistance in achieving salvation, contends that too often discussions of the atonement 

This truth is taught in the scriptures and is, in fact, the end with an acknowledgment of the fact that if man 

central truth of the Christian philosophy of salvation, repents, the demand's of divine justice due to the atone- 

Rut teachers too often fail to encourage students ment have been satisfied. If this does, in fact, repre- 

to progress in their thinking beyond the fact of Christ's sent the conclusion of most discussions of the 

saviorhood to the "how" of it and the meaning of it atonement, then these discussions end where they 

as applied to their current experiences and objectives, should begin. 

Students are seldom made vividly aware of the fact When a student is able to move from the question 

that divine assistance is offered in the form of poten- of how one escapes the consequences of sin to the 

tial personal power that accompanies personal question of how one is empowered to do battle 

righteousness. against the inclination to sin, he is finally prepared to 

The atonement of Christ or that act which epitomizes enter into a more profitable discussion of the atone- 

his saviorhood is, of course, central to the gospel ment. He is prepared to experience true learning, 

message. It follows, therefore, that all its aspects because he has become aware of questions, the 

should be understood by all Latter-day Saints. Yet implications of which can be personally felt. The 

this is often not the case. Those who doubt the primary* concern is not what will follow if a man 

veracity of such a statement are invited to pose the repents, but how does a man repent. How do I 

following question to any group of Latter-day Saints repent? How does Christ help me repent? How does 

whose age and experience allow for the capacity to the atonement contribute to the acquisition of that 

answer: "In what way does the atonement of Christ personal power by which salvation is achieved? Here 



32 Improvement Era 



the discussion does not begin and end with memorized 
answers borrowed from others; it begins with ques- 
tions that bring into focus personal concerns that can 
lead to personally discovered answers. 

What are some of the important insights that can 
be gained when serious consideration is given to 
questions, such as those listed above, relating to the 
atonement? Fundamental to Mormon theology are the 
beliefs that man's will is free and that God does not 
make him either good or bad. The importance of 
free will is summed up by a Jewish writer in the 
following way: 

"Free will is bestowed on every human being. If 
one desires to turn toward the good way and the 
righteous, he has the power to do so. If one wishes 
to turn toward the evil way or be wicked, he is at 
liberty to do so. . . . Let not the notion expressed by 
foolish Gentiles and most of the senseless folk among 
Israelites pass through your mind that at the begin- 
ning of a person's existence, the Almighty decrees that 
he is to be either righteous or wicked; this is not so: 
every human being may become righteous like Moses, 
our teacher, or wicked like Jereboam; wise or foolish, 
merciful or cruel; niggardly or generous; and so with 
all other qualities. There is no one that coerces him 
or decrees what he is to do or draws him to either of 
the two ways; but every person turns to the ways 
which he desires, spontaneously and of his own 
volition." 1 

Here we see emerging one of the most important 
concepts a teacher of religion can hope to convey. 
When a man truly repents of his own free will, he 
ceases to do evil, because he has become aware of a 
pattern of conduct that is superior to that which 
typified his life before he became enlightened. The 
person truly "turns to the ways which he desires, 
spontaneously and of his own volition." Thus, in addi- 
tion to helping students understand that they are free, 
the teacher needs to help students discover for them- 
selves how they can use this freedom and how to 
recognize better patterns of conduct. 

Unfortunately many students are taught to repent 
for reasons that are contrary to their own will. Their 
reasoning seems to be as follows: "I must cease to 
do that which is contrary to the gospel in order that 



I might avoid being punished, or in order that I might 
avoid the unpleasant experience of being looked down 
upon by my neighbors and associates." The implica- 
tion is that if it were possible to continue the present 
way of life while avoiding the consequences, such 
would be preferable to espousing a new way of life. 
In such a case, the real problem is that there is no 
awareness of any new way of life. 

Mormon made an interesting reference to his own 
people in which he indicated that this caliber of 
motivation to "repent" was common among them: 

"And it came to pass that when I, Mormon, saw 
their lamentation and their mourning and their sorrow 
before the Lord, my heart did begin to rejoice within 
me, knowing the mercies and the long-suffering of 
the Lord, therefore supposing that he would be merci- 
ful unto them that they icould again become a 
righteous people. 

"But behold this my joy was vain, for their sorrow- 
ing was not unto repentance, because of the goodness 
of God; but it was rather the sorrowing of the damned, 
because the Lord would not always suffer them to 
take happiness in sin." (Morm. 2:12-13. Italics added.) 

Mormon seemed to be saying that rather than being 
sorry for sin (godly sorrow), his people were sorry 
they were unable to sin and get away with it (worldly 
sorrow ) . 

Here is an important clue to the great source of 
strength the atonement can be to students in their 
efforts to overcome personal sin. The atonement can 
help them to identify their freedom, and to identify 
and discard unproductive thinking regarding sin. 
Students can gain insights that will help them under- 
stand that sin is its own punishment, just as virtue is 
its own reward. They can be more repelled by the 
thought of sin than by the thought of any externally 
imposed punishments that may follow the commission 
of sin. Sin is usually a matter of living divided and un- 
free. It is living in a state of apathy and decisionless- 
ness that allows one to be conditioned from without by 
influences that tend to vitiate one's awareness of 
higher potentialities. The essence of evil is the 
failure to decide, the failure to commit oneself to 
those ideals and tasks that awaken the highest part 
of one's nature. — ► 



April 1968 



33 



Apart from the fact that the atonement did away 
with the problem of physical death, it contributes to 
the acquisition of that personal power by which 
freedom and commitment are achieved. The atone- 
ment helps one to decide in favor of righteousness 
with one's whole being, so that he is whole, unified, 
one-directional in his approach to life. To reason that 
sinful habits should cease in order that unpleasant 
consequences of sin (externally imposed) may be 
avoided is to succumb rather than to decide. Here 
there is no vision of a better way of life— there is 
simply a fear of divine punishment. Surely this is 
living divided and unfree. 

The message of the gospel of Jesus Christ is that 
there is a way out of this dilemma; the gospel as re- 
vealed through Christ makes available those ideals— 
that way of life— which, when understood, are attrac- 
tive enough to draw one away from the life of sin. It 
follows that students may expect from Christ or from 
the atonement an influence that elevates their own 
character. 

To save in the highest sense of the word is to 
awaken the soul to its own highest possibilities, to 
give to every man that precious freedom which is 



possible only when that which one does is truly a 
manifestation of that which he desires to do. 

The atonement should be taught in such a way as 
to cause students to realize that the suffering of Christ 
on the cross and in Gethsemane can be a source of 
power to them to the extent that they develop an 
ever-increasing awareness of why he suffered. When 
they begin to catch glimpses (this is all our present 
capacity will allow!) of the infinite love and total 
commitment that were displayed throughout Christ's 
life and epitomized in Gethsemane and on the cross, 
then they are becoming sensitive to that influence 
which can call them away from sin. It is Christ's 
love that can awaken love in their own souls. 

The fact is, then, that Christ does save us from 
sin. The prophets have spoken of this in the following 
expressions : 

"Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will 
make a new covenant with the house of Israel, . . . 

"Not according to the covenant that I made with 
their fathers. . . . 

"... I will put my law in their inward parts, and 
write it in their hearts. . . ." (Jer. 31:31-33.) 

"A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit 



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will I put within you: and I will take away the stony 
heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart 
of flesh. 

"And I will put my spirit within you, and cause 
you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my 
judgments, and do them." (Ezek. 36:26-27.) 

"Behold, he changed their hearts; yea, he awakened 
them out of a deep sleep, and they awoke unto God." 
(Al. 5:7.) 

A new heart! A new spirit! A new life! The whole, 
undivided life— a life wholeheartedly accepted because 
it is recognized as far superior to the old life of want- 
ing to sin while at the same time being fearful of the 
consequences of sin. When this is our happy lot, we 
truly experience the abundant life, because we are 
able to say "I want to!" as much as we say "I must!" 
Professor W. H. Sheldon said that "happiness is essen- 
tially a state of going somewhere wholeheartedly." 

Religion should be taught in such a way that it 
indicates to our students the direction in which they 
should travel. God wants our will to be his will; he 
wants us to see as he sees, to love as he loves. We 
begin to sense what William James meant when he 
spoke of the possibility of experiencing "the centers 



of spiritual energy." The atonement can assist our 
students to develop centers of spiritual energy when 
they recognize it to be something other than payment 
for their sins. 

Such statements as "Christ is our Savior," "man is 
eternal," "the first principles of the gospel must be 
observed" are true. The challenge that needs to be 
clearly recognized by every teacher in the Church is 
to make certain that these concepts are never merely 
taught in the abstract. This will help insure against 
the possibility that students can avow faith without 
that faith having relevance to their style of life. Let 
us be certain our students are never content merely 
to look the answers up in the backs of their books, 
because some answers can never be found there. Let 
us help them toward that personal confrontation with 
fundamental questions. o 



FOOTNOTES 



'Rose K. Goklson, et. al., What College Students Think (Van Nostrand, 
1960). 

-Phillip E. Jacob, Changing Values in College (Harper & Row, 1957). 

■'James E. Talmage, Articles of Faith, p. 87. 

'Eric Fromm, Ye Shall Be as Gods (Rhinehart and Winston, 1966), 
p. 164. 



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April 1968 



35 




Illustrated by Ed Maryon 



The Shriven Tree 

By Bertha A. Kleinman 

'Mid the stately cedars of Lebanon, I towered in timbered might, 
Awaiting the scythe, to be honed and hewn into beams for the temple site; 
My thews had weathered the tempest blast, disdaining the lightning flare, 
To proffer my branches unscathed, unbowed for the loftiest steeple there; 

Or perchance for a Caesar's palladium in his royal esplanade, 

Or a canopy shading a despot's throne with his gems in my facade. 

For the Coliseum, my colonnade; my staves for the Hippodrome; 

In the vast arena my girded piers for the frolicking hordes of Rome. 

For the spanning arch of the Appian Way, a stanchion would I bestow, 
Defying the ravaging rust of time for the legions that come and go. 
An offertory, let me bequeath as a saintly legacy — 
Lo! a lectern gracing a synagogue for the prayers of the Pharisee. 

They hailed him King with their fluttering palms, as he entered Jerusalem, 
Then led him away to a storm-swept hill, with me in the midst of them, 
A wearying King on a dusty road, his scaffold my cowering tree, 
Bruising his shoulders, and mine the shame that he shoidd be steadying me! 

As the nails bit deep through his lifted hands and shattered his prone feet through, 
My timbers quailed where the red drops stained, as they splintered my sinews too. 
They had reeved my boughs for a crucifix ivhere his thorn-crowned head was laid 
(Submission exalting a Conqueror — there atonement's price was paid). 

No more shall my arrogant branches writhe in the fury of wind and sleet; 
They have held a King, and a shriven tree kneels in penance at his feet! 



36 



Improvement Era 







f f 

f i 

f 

i 
% 

Mi. 


I ' 


' '.;:\^ ?_ ^ 




i m '- i fi 

I 4 1 - 11 




i Bts,,.* r 1 * 


sadl" 





/ will never forget the lesson my father gave to us boys in 
the hay field when, after putting nine loads of hay in the barn, we 
went out to the field to get the tenth and drove right over to where 
we had taken the other loads, and my father said, "Here, boys, go over 
on the north; there is better hay there." And I said, "We'll take it 
as it comes" That seemed fair to me. 

This was wild grass and wasn't much good anyhow. 
"No, boys, you drive over on the north where the timothy is 
mixed with wild hay. This is the tithing load." 
"Well, we don't have to take the best." 
"Yes, boys, the best is none too good for the Lord." 
That was a better lesson than any preaching on tithing I have 
ever heard. The value of the load of hay didn't amount to much, but 
Father's spirit amounted to a great deal in influencing us. 

—President David 0. McKay 




."*"*jF r "~ '"* 




The LastLoad 



lustration by 06 





\^M 



3SSS7V5 




LIVES THAT STAND 

iNSPECTiorseries 




"You're right, 
Sarge, a big man 
can make up 
his own mind." 



bur Own Mind 



Fi\ Marion I), linn 



• The young Mormon marine 
was uneasy and didn't know 
why. There were plenty of ordi- 
nary reasons for a member of a 



combat unit in almost daily con- 
tact with the. enemy to feel un- 
easy, hut this was something 
different. When he returned 
with his group to their base 
ramp alter several days in the 
field, he discovered what it was. 

"C'inon, Smith,'" the sergeant 
said. "The whole outfit's going 
into town. This time you're 
coming with us even if we have 
to drag you. You are about to 
find out how big men live when 
they get away from their 
mamas." 

Kick Smith caught the sharp 
edge of the other's voice, knifing 
through the seeming lightness of 



look in the. eye and the tightness 
at the corners of the mouth, 
Sarge wasn't kidding; he really 
intended to take Kick along. 
even if he had to he dragged. 

"No thanks, Sarge," Kick 
said. "I'm staving here." 

""Listen, Sonny,'"' came the 
grim answer, ""big men ean 
make up their own minds about 
their lives. They don't slay tied 
to mommy's apron strings when 
they're in this man's outfit. 
You're coming with us." 

Kick Smith could feel the 
color drain from his face and 
the strength ebb from his knees, 
but his voice surprised him witli 
its calmness as he heard him- 
self answer: 

"You're right, Sarge, a big 
man ean make up his own mind. 



cide whether I'll live the way you 
do or the way 1 believe in. 
You've made yonr choice, Ser- 
geant, and that's your business. 
Hut I still have, a choice, and I 
prefer to live another way. 
Thai's what I've made up my 
mind to do. I'm staying here." 
The sergeant turned on his 
heel, muttering curses. Elder 
Kiehard Smith, I 9, found a quiet 
plaee, and in his loneliness he 
thanked (.oil in his heart for an 
answer he had been afraid he 
might not know how to give. 



his words. He understood the I have the responsibility to dc- 



He'd been uneasy because he had 
somehow known intuitively that 
there was a different kind of 
battle ahead of him that day. 
He was sure now that there were 
more battles to come, but he'd 
won this one. and he was 
grateful. O 



'>y Jed Nap.atn 



April 1968 




m 



0*&- 






• It's great to be a Latter-da| 

Saint in Salt Lake City or am 
place in Utah. Church-wis^* 
you're not I minority statisti 
Most of the students in yoi 
school are Mormons. The peop' 
up and down the neighborhoo 
block are probably Churc? 
oriented. .When yon go to ML 
or priesthood meeting just a 
when you go to a school functior 
your friends are there. Instea 
of getting up in the middle o 
the night to attend seminary 
most ninth grade rs cjm read 
their 7 :15 a.m 
ten minutes i 
school students ar. 
''released timeiif to 

1't from the high school ano 
r - during' -> i>*v 



i read 
five o 



S" '1 



>mitte< 
jss th 



^ ~. 



a i no. 
>- the 




yon siuuy wiin, wont 



.., live with have been born 

awl reared in the Church. Many 

jhtfid ancestors who crossed the 




It %ju 





TbBe a Teen in Salt Lake City 



By Elaine Cannon 



plains to settle Zion in the early 
days. Maybe you play ball with 
the children of some Church 
leader, or even live next door to 
one of the General Authorities. 
Your gym teacher might be your 
YWMIA president, and the 
coach of your ward team may be 
a former star of the college 
team. You may find that your 
language professor has presided 
over a mission. 

Life in the city is geared to 
the conference crowds in April 
and October and to MIA events 
in June. Some specially favored 
teens are on occasion called in 
by Church leaders to participate 
in conference programs or to dis- 
cuss the specif ic'needs and wants ' 
of youth for program planning 
and lesson manuals. 

If you are a teen in Salt Lake 
City you might walk past the 
Brigham Young Monument to 
the shops in town. You can see 
Brigham Young's homes and 
the Church Office Building as 
you drive down South Temple. 
You can pedal your bike around 
the This Is the Place Monument 




Teens photographed for the cover 
and these six pages are Linda 
Garrison, Debbie Dowell, Laurie 
Florence, Marti Sonntag,, Russell 
Young, Richard Sorensen, Glade 
Curtis, and Richard Strong. 




April 1968 



41 





and spend summer evenings on 
Temple Square. You can attend 
symphony concerts and impor- 
tant lectures in the historic 
Tabernacle; and you can plan 
your wedding for the beautiful 
Salt Lake Temple, just as your 
parents may have done before 
you and perhaps even their par- 
ents, too. 

If you are a boy, you grow up 
preparing to fill a mission. It's 
just the thing to do. In fact, in 
some wards there may be too 
many eligible boys for the quota 
these draft-demanding days. The 
waiting list is long and disap- 
pointment keen if a mission is 
missed. If you are a girl, you 
may spend many of your week- 
ends going to farewell parties 
and to the airport to say good- 
bye to the elders. Or you may 
bake cookies to send him in 
a "care" package from your 
Gleaner class. 

But it's different in Salt Lake, 
too, because many of the youth 
have never had to defend their 
position in the Church. Often 
you don't realize how much the 
Church and its way of life 



42 



Era of Youth 



really mean until you go away. 
You aren't as much involved in 
local missionary work, because 
most of your friends already be- 
long to the Church. It's pleasant 
to have so many, many friends 
who are members of the Church. 
The variety of groups you could 
mingle with whose standards are 
the same as yours seems un- 
limited. 

The many inter-ward, inter- 
stake, inter-school, and all- 
Church functions enlarge your 
circle of friends to such an ex- 
tent that the lines at weddings, 
funerals, and receptions are 
often an hour long. Many people 
have big families and lots of 
relatives, and the circle of loved 
ones ever widens. 

;Salt Lake City teens are 
famous for their good looks. 
They are conscious of the latest 
fashion trends, but their taste in 
dancing and music is probably 
more conservative than in many 
other places. 

You can walk out of your 
front door almost any place in 
the valley of the pioneers, go for 
a few blocks in any direction, 




A\ 



V, 



- ' ^ 






/ 



:/ 






!« 



^f 






fc>C 



» ,» I iMtfrfe**^--.- -- 



■ 





and come to a lovely LDS chapel 
where two or three large wards 
meet. 

People reach for a cone instead 
of a drink in this Mormon coun- 
try, so there is probably a 
favorite shake shop just around 
the nearest corner where ice 
cream is sold in enormous 
quantities. 

High above the valley to the 
east are famous ski resorts. You 
can ski in tall, rugged mountains 
that your pi6neer ancestors 
crossed in covered wagons. And 
when you stop to think about it, 



your heart throbs a moment. At 
the western end of the valley is 
Great Salt Lake. You can float 
like a cork in that salty water. 
You learn of the valley's simi- 
larity to the Savior's country, 
for there is a Jordan River in 
Salt Lake, too, one that empties 
into this "dead sea," 

Teens may go skiing With 
ward or school groups in the 
winter. They "tube" and ice- 
skate and snowshoe into moun- 
tain cabins just a half hour away 
from the city. They have parties 
galore in each other's homes. 





* ■ 




They hike and hold cookouts, 
water ski on mountain lakes, 
play tennis by the hour, and 
travel with friends, family, or 
ward groups to fantastic red- 
rock national parks just a few 
hours away. 

There is a mixture of nation- 
alities in this beautiful, busy 
city. Immigrants who have come 
from all over the world to live in 
Salt Lake enrich the lives of all. 
Missionaries who have labored 
in far-away places return home 
filled with new ideas and often 
teach languages part-time in 
schools. Teens can become f amil- 
iar with different languages and 
native dances and foreign foods. 
They hear lectures about the 
Church throughout the world at 
Sunday firesides. But the world 
is moving in and bringing with 
it its problems and complexities. 
Salt Lake isn't the sheltered 
haven it once was. This is all 
the more reason why this gener- 
ation of teens realizes the im- 
portance of knowing more and 
more about their Church and its 
standards, as well as its history, 
and of living them thoroughly. 



April 1968 








• T^e challenging question, "What shall I do 
after high school?" must be answered "by many 
Latter-day Saint students during the next several 
months. Where do you turn to get help in finding 
just the right answer for your particular needs? 

The Educational Information and Guidance 
Center, a comparatively new source, represents 
the joint efforts of Church-sponsored programs to 
assist youth in making wise decisions regarding 
post-high school educational experiences. It also 
hopes to encourage all of the young people of the 
Church to gain additional preparation after high 
school graduation. 

The First Presidency recently counseled the 
youth of the Church "to seek the type of educa- 
tional program for which they are best suited and 
which will best prepare them for service in the 
Church and in the community." 

It is to this purpose that the Educational In- 




formation and Guidance Center is dedicated. 

Alma P. Burton, Department of Seminaries and 
Institutes of Religion; D. Neil Willey, LDS Busi- 
ness College; Daniel S. Hess, Ricks College; 
William R. Siddoway, Brigham Young University ; 
and Robert W. Spencer, acting director of the 
center, meet regularly as a cooperative committee 
to administer the programs of the center. For your 
sake, the Era of Youth posed some questions to 
this committee. 

Q. What services are available to youth through 
the guidance center? 

A. The center provides general information and 
counseling about all kinds of post-high school educa- 
tional opportunities including trade institutes, spe- 
cific information about many Church education 
opportunities, and individual counseling and testing 
at the center to aid students in making decisions. It 

Illustration by Dale Kilbourn 



School What? 





also arranges for personal counseling from the near- 
est Church educational representative, if necessary. 
Q. What can be done for the counseling of students 
too far removed from the center locations to obtain 
personal interviews? 

A., We can answer many questions and provide 
source information by mail. We can also provide 
students with the name and address of an appro- 
priate Church representative in their area from whom 
they might seek advice. 

Tele-lecture programs can be arranged so that 
groups of students in one location can verbally 
communicate with representatives of the Educational 
Information and Guidance Center. 

Filmstrip and movie presentations are currently 
being produced and will be available for distribution 
within the next several months. 

Representatives of the center will be visiting dif- 
ferent geographic areas throughout the year to pro- 
vide opportunities for individual counseling with 
those students far removed from one of the centers. 
Q. Should all of our young people, girls and boys, 
seek vocational preparation beyond high school? 
A. Yes. Positions requiring no education or spe- 
cial training are decreasing from year to year and 
soon will be nonexistent. The latest reports from the 
United Slates Secretary of Labor show the following: 
— Greatly increased demand for professional and 
technical workers. 

— Slightly increased demand for skilled craftsmen 
and clerical and secretarial workers. 
—Rapidly and steadily declining demand for un- 
skilled and farm workers. 

Q. What are the major problem areas regarding 
post-high school preparation plans? 
A., 1. You have just stated one of the major prob- 
lems — "plans." Too many of our young people are 
not making plans; others are making short-term 
decisions without first establishing attainable goals 
and taking into consideration such factors as costs, 
abilities, interests, and time. 
2. Another serious problem is the prevailing atti- 



tude that post-high school education means only a 
college education. It is unreasonable to assume that 
all of our young people should graduate from a four- 
year college. Training and preparation programs 
other than the university should be given considera- 
tion by many of our youth. 

3. Many parents still need to understand the im- 
portance of young ladies obtaining a usable skill. 
A completed program of vocational training may be 
more useful than one or two years of general college 
attendance that doesn't result in completion of a 
degree or the development of special skills. 
Q. How can the center help me? 
A. The center can: 

1. Help you to obtain and decide on educational 
training beyond high school. 

2. Inform you of the many possibilities for addi- 
tional training and preparation. 

3. Help you make sound, wise choices regarding 
the many available schools and programs, taking 
into consideration a variety of important factors, in- 
cluding financial expense, time, scholastic and spe- 
cial abilities, past scholastic performance, interests, 
goals, and personalities. 

4. Provide testing and personal counseling for you 
at four centers: Ricks College in Rexburg, Idaho; 
LDS Business College in Salt Lake City; Brigham 
Young University in Provo, Utah; and the Church 
College of Hawaii in Laie, Hawaii. 

5. Arrange for seminary and institute personnel 
throughout the Church to advise and counsel with 
you individually. 

Q. Where can I write to obtain appointments or 
services from the Educational Information and Guid- 
ance Center? 

A. Information or counseling requests should be 
directed to: 
Robert W. Spencer 
A- 183 ASB 

Brigham Young University 
Provo, Utah 84601 
Phone: (801) 374-1211, ext. 2537 O 



April 1968 



47 





WhatAre 

They 

Coming'To? 



By Florence Bittner 



I worry about the younger 
generation. I feel it is part of 
my civic duty. Every generation 
has always worried about the 
younger generation. 

But this younger generation 
really needs to be worried 
about. I just don't know where 
they're headed. A bunch of fly- 
by-nights, frantically running 
around, refusing to take advan- 
tage of opportunities. Smart 
alecks — taking anything that 
isn't nailed down. Never content 
to stay home for a minute. 

If you don't believe me, just 
try to make an appointment 
With a family for some reason, 
and who are the ones you can 
never catch home? The teen- 
agers, that's who, They're al- 
ways chasing off to some ball 
game or church activity or 
part-time job or to do some 
volunteer work at a hospital. All 
the mothers say the same thing 
— they never saw anyone so 
busy. See what I mean ? Never 
content to stay home. 

They'll take anything that 
isn't nailed down — like Dale 
Pulsipher, who found my daugh- 



ter's wallet on the bus. It had 
her university student activity 
card for identification. Just 
about the time she realized she'd 
lost it, Dale called to say he had 
found it. See? That wallet 
wasn't nailed down, and sure 
enough, he picked it up. 

He came to the house on the 
bus to bring the wallet with the 
money still in it, refused any 
kind of reward, said he had 
been worried for fear she would 
need some of the papers in it, 
and protested when my husband 
insisted on driving him home . . . 
said he could take the bus home 
again and it wasn't any trouble. 
They don't know how to take 
advantage of an opportunity, 
these kids. 

Last summer we went to the 
beach at the lake. On the way 
home we stopped for gas, and 
my husband discovered he had 
lost his credit cards. We have 
heard about people who have 
lost- their credit cards, and with 
the kind of young people we 
have around today, we knew we 
were in for it. Probably by the 
time we could have the credit 




48 




cards cancelled, they'd have run 
up several hundred dollars worth 
of bills. 

Early the next morning some 
kid called, wouldn't give his 
name, just an address in the 
very worst part of town. He said 
he had found the credit cards. 
Well! In that part of town we 
knew we would have nothing but 
trouble, and that's what he gave 
us . . . wouldn't tell us his name 
. . . said it didn't matter . . . 
didn't even want to be thanked 
for returning them . . . wouldn't 
take any money. "For what?" he 
said. Like I said, these kids 
don't know how to take advan- 
tage of an opportunity. Just 
think of the high old time he 
could have had on our credit 
cards, but what did he do? He 
gave them back. No ingenuity. 

We went for a ride on a winter 
evening out into the country. We 
backed into a side road to turn 
around and discovered we'd 
chosen a very icy bit of real 
estate to stop on. Our wheels 
were running up miles on the 
speedometer without going any- 
where. A car full of teen-age 



boys stopped, and believe me, I 
was scared. Before we could 
even get the doors locked, those 
kids put their shoulders to the 
back of our car and had us out 
onto the highway and they were 
gone. Didn't even wait around 
to pass the time of day. Impolite, 
like all the kids today. 

If we went to school 12 years, 
we were educated. Some of us 
went on to college, but most of 
us knew what we needed to know 
by the time we had graduated 
from high school. No more. This 
younger generation doesn't think 
any more of a college education 
than we did of a high school 
diploma, and then they're not 
satisfied. They just keep right 
on going to school till they have 
whiskers down to here. See? 
Smart alecks — avoiding the real- 
ities of life. 

Like I said, I have to do my 
share of worrying about the 
younger generation and what 
they're coming to. This I know 
— whatever it is they're coming 
to had better get out of the way, 
because when these kids say 
they're coming, they're coming! 




49 






■ 






"The danc*, 

made a new person out of me. 

The swing, waltz, 
cha-cha, and others are 
fun; in fact, they are 
better than our teenage 



dances. " 



-Hugh Roberts 



"To me th 



have been a real ble.ssi 
They've helped me be 
more at ease at dances li. 
our gold and green 
ball, where adults also 



-Vicki Jeppson 



"When they first started 
dance class I really 
wasn't sure about it, but I 
gave it a try anyway. 
And I haven't been sorry 
for it either. In 



fact, I 



?gan to look 



forward to it each weekend. " 
-Barbara Murri 



"I really like the dancing 
lessons. Not only are 
they fun, but knowing all 
those steps also, made the 
Saturday night dances 
more enjoyable. I think that 
knowledge of these 
dance steps will be help- 
ful in my later life." 

—Mike Chr"> •*+ eneoi-i 



• The teens in our ward knew one kind of danc- 
ing, and it left something to be desired. Their 
reaction to our criticism was "Look, you had your 
dances during your youth; now let us have ours!" 
We replied, "Yes, we had ours. Over the last 
20 or 30 years or more, there have been many fad 
dances; they come and go. But there are some 
dances that continue to be popular." 

Then we explained why. We agreed they should 
keep the dances they were now doing, but they 
should also join with us in an instruction program 
for additional skills. "It will be fun," we said, 
"and you are not going to be kids forever; one of 
these years when you are faced with dancing in a 
mixed group socially, you will at least knoiv some- 
thing about it." 

We had the right dance instructor in Vinette 
Southwick, but we also needed good music. I 
called together some of our more affluent ward 
members and told them we needed a portable 
stereo so we could bring the young people the best 



"I am very glad that I 
had the chance to take these 
lessons. I just wish 
all the kids in the 
Church could have this 
opportunity and would take 
advantage of it . " 

-Greg Hulet 



"I have learned many 
lessons from this dance 
class besides how to 
dance, including 
to know old friends 



r and making 



new ones. 



-Karen Southwick 




music possible. They helped us obtain one. 

Then we selected several boys in the priests 
.quorum who had some influence and sold them 
individually on the idea of giving at least a three- 
lesson try to the program. We interviewed, either 
individually or in small groups, all boys and girls 
from age 11+ to 16. We also took some time in 
sacrament meeting to give a detailed outline of 
the program to the parents and solicited their 
support. 

The lessons were to be held from 6:30 to 8:00 
p.m., just prior to our regular Saturday night 
dances. We indicated that upon completion of the 
12-week course, we would have a special dinner 
dance. The group has since put on two floor 
show exhibitions, and because of the interest that 
has been created by this "pilot group,'* we have 
another class starting for 12 and 13-year-olds. 
We are also organizing a parents' instruction 
course so that parents and youth may join to- 
gether occasionally. O 




"This program ha:; fuvcn 
me an invalu- 
able education 
in dancing, and I will 
be able to apply this 
knowledge in my 




older 1 Lie. " 



-Mike Reed 



Ofc^c' t>«* '• T>^ 




jUkJL& 



VvdVJ . * - 



w — ■— ■■■ ■» m^~~ 



Janice Widdison ... is winner of the 
nationwide essay contest sponsored by 
the French Alliance in the United States, 
with the prize of a month in Paris. She 
leaves in' July for France. A freshman 
student at Brigham Young University, 
she has won many scholastic and 
Church honors in her home area of San 
Fernando, California. 





Members of the highly successful (na- 
tional champions!) Church College of 
Hawaii rugby team play ball for fun and 
for kicks — and the most accurate 
kicker of them all is Joe Vakalala. This 
sure-footed precision kicker from Fiji 
has reportedly accounted for four out 
of every five points scored by the CCH 
team during the past two years. Joe 
and his rugged teammates have made 
outstanding records against the best 
competition in America in games 
played both in Hawaii and on the main- 
land. 



Carol Skinner ... is a member of the 
Meridian Ward, Boise (Idaho) North 
Stake, where she is MIA organist. She 
has maintained a straight "A" average 
all through high school, and will be 
Meridian High's valedictorian. She is 
a chapter president of Future Teachers 
of America, an editor of the school 
newspaper, and active in debate, 
Thespians, and Service Club. Carol is 
the oldest of eight children and is an 
outstanding girl with high ideals, goals, 
and standards. 



Fred Goodson . . . has won a number 
of honors and packed a scrapbook full 
of clippings already. He's been named 
outstanding boy by many groups and is 
an Eagle Scout, a priesthood officer, 
and holds a scholarship to Brigham 
Young University. Chemical engineer- 
ing is his chosen field. Fred is a 
member of the Denver First Ward, 
Denver (Colorado) Stake. 

Illustration by Dale Kilbourn 



Janice Widdison 




Fred Goodson 



52 



Era of Youth 



What makes a station 
STAND TALL? 



0$ 49 8 




: : : '*," 



Sewtft St 

Ciftrc 




Wes Bowen of KSL confers on traffic with Utah Highway Patrolman Richard J. Brown. 

KSL Got Tough - - So Did The Law ! 

the subject. There was opposition. Bowen 
and KSL kept swinging. 

A new bill, virtually as Bowen and KSL 
proposed, passed. The governor signed it. 
That was early in 1967. KSL then turned 
to informing the public of the law, one of 
the nation's toughest on drunk driving. KSL 
called for enforcement. 

It just may be that the tougher drunk 
driving law had something to do with these 
figures: in 1967 Utah's highway deaths 
totaled 274, down 17% from 1966. 



As in many states, Utah's traffic deaths 
were climbing. 

Wes Bowen, KSL's public affairs direc- 
tor, moved into action. He was joined by 
representatives of the state's judiciary, law 
enforcement agencies, safety council, and 
medical association. 

Sobriety tests, financed by KSL, were 
conducted at University of Utah medical 
school. KSL produced a 30-minute docu- 
mentary, showed it to the state legislature. 
Bowen addressed the combined houses on 




City Location 
New York, N. Y. 
Seattle, Washington 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

"Boise, Idaho 

"Idaho Falls, Idaho 

"Affiliated With 



FM Radio 
WRFM Stereo 
KIRO Stereo 
KMBR Stereo 
KSL Stereo 
KBOI Stereo 
KID Stereo 

•C.P. 



AM Radio 



KIRO 50,000 Watts 
KMBZ 5,000 Watts 
KSL 50,000 Watts 
"KBOI 50,000 Watts 
KID 5,000 Watts 



Television 

KIRO <$> 

KSL 9 
KBOI $ 
KID Q 



International 

Shortwave Radio 

WNYW No. 1 

WNYW No. 2 

WNYW No. 3 

WNYW No. 4 

WNYW No. 5 

Studios in 

New York, N. Y. 



The BONNEVILLE Group 

Bonneville International Corp. 



April 1968 



53 



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Prepared by the research department of the 
Genealogical Society 



Major Genealogical 
Record Sources in 



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* 

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The National Archives or Riksarkivet (Bankplassen 3, Oslo, Norway) preserves the non- 
current records of government departments and offices, while the various regional archives or 
Statsarkiver preserve documents from the regional and local branches of the state administration. 
No definite time limit is set for the transfer of records to these central archives. However, as 
far as the major sources of genealogical information are concerned, one can generally expect 
that documents dated before 1900 have been transferred. 

Regional Archives: (1) Statsarkivet in Oslo: Kirkegaten 14-18, Oslo, Norway. Includes 
Ostfold, Akershus, Oslo, Buskerud, Vestfold, and Telemark counties. (2) Statsarkivet in Hamar: 
Strandgaten 71, Hamar, Norway. Includes Hedmark and Oppland counties. (3) Statsarkivet in 
Kristiansand: Vesterveien 4, Kristiansand, Norway. Includes Aust-Agder and Vest-Agder counties. 
(4) Statsarkivet in Bergen: Aarstadveien 32, Bergen, Norway. Includes Rogaland, Hordaland, Ber- 
gen, and Sogn og Fjordane counties. The principal records relating to Rogaland are located at the 
Statsarkivkontor, Peder Klows gate 27, Stavanger, Norway. (5) Statsarkivet in Trondheim: 
Hogskoleveien 12, Trondheim, Norway. Includes More og Romsdal, Sor-Trondelag, Nord-Trondelag, 
Nordland, Troms, and Finnmark counties. The principal records relating to Troms and Finnmark 
are kept at the Statsarkivkontor in Tromso, Petersborg gate 21-29, Tromso, Norway. 

Note — Of the many printed sources available, rural histories (bygdeboker), which often 
devote most of their space to farm history and the genealogies of families, are a major source 
of information regarding farming communities and their inhabitants. Other genealogical periodicals 
and family histories are available in print. Some of these are at the Genealogical Society Library 
in Salt Lake City; complete collections are found in various libraries and archives in Norway. 



The chart and table that follow contain the major genealogical record sources of Norway. The sources 
are listed, together with type of record, period covered, type of information given, and source avail- 
ability. 

Table A shows at a glance the record sources available for a research problem in a particular century. 

Table B provides more detailed information about the major records available. For example, if a 
pedigree problem is in the 17th century, a quick indication can be obtained from Table A of the 
sources available for that period. Reference to Table B will then provide more complete information. 



MAJOR SOURCE AVAILABILITY BY CENTURY 

CENTURY 



TYPE OF RECORD 



1. Emigration Records 

2. Mortgage Records 

3. Lutheran Parish Registers 

4. Real Estate Books 



5. Census Records 

6. Land Commissions 



7. Land and Property Records 

8. Probate Records 



9. Court Records 
10. Tax Lists 



11. Military Records 



12. Revenue & Expense Records 

13. Deeds 




Table A 



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54 



Improvement Era 



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MnpwAv 



Illustrated by Dave Burton 



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Continuation of the series on new research papers 





MAJOR 


SOURCES CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED 








TYPE OF 
RECORD 


PERIOD 

COVERED 


TYPE OP INFORMATION GIVEN 


AVAILABILITY 


1. EMIGRA- 
TION 
RECORDS 

(Emigrasjons 
piotokoller) 

Police Emi- 
gration Lists 

White Star 
Lines 


1867 to 

present 

1883-1920 


Names, places of residence, ages, dates 
of departure, destinations, names of ships 

Names, destinations, information varies 


1867-1900 on film <GS); 1867 to present: 
tin- oldest lists, those lor Oslo, Kristian- 
sand. and Bergen, are at flu* Regional 
Archives, others at local police stations 

Regional Archives, Oslo 


2. MORTGAGE 
RECORDS 

(ParftebQker) 


Approx 
1700 to 
present 


Information regarding real estate con- 
veyances, mortgages, and other encum- 
brances on property, agreements, con 
tracts, etc., which sometimes contain much 
genealogical data 


1700-1800: on film (GS) 
1700-1900: Regional Archives 
1900-present: local magistrates or town 
council clerks (sorenskriver or hyskriver) 


3. LUTHERAN 
PARISH 
REGISTERS 

(Kirkeb0ker) 


Approx 
1700 to 
present. 

some 

•arlier, 

Cg., 

Andebu, 

since 1023. 
Bragernes, 
sinci. 1634 


Births: names, dates, occupations, par- 
entage, witnesses at the christening. 
places of residence of parents, introduc- 
tions 

Marriages: names, conditions, dates, oc- 
cupations, residence; since about 1830. 
ages, place of birth, father's name 

Deaths: nanus, ages, causes of death, 
occupations, dates, places; since late 19th 
century, place of birth 

Confirmations: names, ages, residence: 
after 1814 dates of christening and names 
of parents. 


Earliest to approx I8S0: on film (GS) 

Parish registers less than about 80 years 
old are held by the parish clergymen; 
older registers are in the custody of the 
Regional Archives 

In rural districts, duplicates of parish 
registers are often made and sent to 
the Regional Archives as soon as com- 
pleted 

Registers less than 60 years old are not 
accessible to genealogical researchers 
without special permission 






Arrivals: names, ages, occupations, former 
places of residence, new places of residence 

Removals: names, ages, occupations, places 
of residence, places of destination 


Abstracts from the parish registers since 
1870 are in the Central Bureau of Statis- 
tics (Statistisk Sentralbyraa) in Oslo 

Abstracts from 1866-1869 are in the 
National Archives 


4. REAL 
ESTATE 
BOOKS 

(Malrikkel) 


1665 to 
present 


Names of owners and cultivators of farms 


National and Regional Archives; some 
in print dating from 1838; from about 
1900, local magistrates or town council 
clerks 


5. CENSUS 
RECORDS 

(Mannlall og 

Folkelellin- 

ger) 


1664-1666 


Tax and population lists, rural districts 
only: farm names, names and ages of 
owners, names and ages of all males 
over 12 (sons and servants) ; names and 
ages of cottagers; names and ages of 
"strandsiddere." 


On film (GS) ; National and Regional 
Archives 


1701 


Lists only males in rural districts: farm 
names, names and ages of owners, names 
and ages of sons and servants 


On film (GS) ; National and Regional 
Archives. Note, missing for East Norway 
except for Rygge, Odal, six districts of 
Romerike and part of the Larvik district 


1769 


Sjeleregister: first census to list complete 
families but was not taken for all areas 
of the country 


Regional Archives 


1801 


Farm names; names, ages, occupations, 
and marital status of each member of 
the household 


On film (GS) ; National and Regional 
Archives 





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April 1968 



55 



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NORWAY, continued 





TYPE OF 
RECORD 


PERIOD 
COVERED 


TYPE OF INFORMATION GIVEN 


AVAILABILITY 


CENSUS 
RECORDS 

(Manntall og 

Folketellin- 

ger) 


1815-1855 


From 1815 a census was taken every 10 
years, but not compLete for all of the 

country 


National Archives 


1865 


Farm names; names, ages, places of 
birth, occupations, religion, and mari- 
tal status of every member of household; 
in cities, names of the streets and house 
numbers 


On film (GS); National Archives 


1875 


Farm names; names, years and places of 
birth, occupations, religion, and marital 
status of every member of household; 
in cities, names of streets and house num- 
bers 


On film (GS); Regional Archives 


1890 


Farm names; names, years and places of 
birth, occupations, religion, marital status, 
and citizenship of every member of house- 
hold; whether insane, blind, deaf and 

dumb; in cities, names of streets and house 
number 


National Archives 


1900 


Farm names; names, sex, years and places 
of birth, occupations, religion, marital 
status, and citizenship of every member 
of household; whether insane, blind, deaf 
and dumb; in cities, names of streets and 
numbers 


On film (GS) ; Regional Archives 


1910, 1920, 
1930, 1946, 
1950, 1960 


Similar to previous censuses with more 
detailed statistics 


National and Regional Archives; Central 
Bureau of Statistics; available by special 
permission only 


6. LAND 
COMMIS- 
SIONS 

(Landkom- 
misjoner) 


1661-1665 
1680-1691 


Ledgers, land rentals, tithes, and various 
other taxes, mostly listing names and 
monetary amounts 


On film (GS); National Archives 


7. LAND AND 
! PROPERTY 
RECORDS 

| (Jordeb<pker) 


1660-1676 


Index to land rentals and records, con- 
taining names, dates, acreage 


On film (GS); National Archives; some 
in print 


8. PROBATE 
RECORDS 

(Skifte- 
protokoller) 


Approx 
1660 to 
present 


Names of the deceased, heirs, guardians, 
ages, relationships, places ot residence; 
registration, valuation, and division of 
real estate and property 


1660 to approx 1850; on film (GS) 

1660 to present; Regional Archives; local 

magistrates or town council clerks 


9. COURT 
RECORDS 

(Justis- 
protokollcr) 


1650 to 
present 


Civil and criminal action including "odel- 
ssaker" (referring to allodial property 
rights), containing names, dates, places, 
relationships; personal, legal, and moral 
circumstances; sometimes information 
about entire families through several 
generations 


1650-1700: on film (GS) 
1650 to present: National and Regional 
Archives; local magistrates and town 
council clerks 


10. TAX LISTS 

(Skatte- 

lister) 


Earliest 
from 1645, 
generally 
1710 follow- 
ing 


Surtax for cities, rural districts, and 
ecclesiastical districts, containing names 
and amounts of tax; more detailed infor- 
mation about some individuals 


On film (GS); National and Regional 
Archives 


1712, 1718. 
1814 


Summary tax assessments, containing 
names and amounts of tax 


On film (GS); National and Regional 
Archives 


1712-1720 


City tax assessments, containing names 
and amounts of tax 


On film (GS); National and Regional 
Archives 


1773-1778 


Names and amounts of tax 


On film (GS) ; National and Regional 
Archives 


11. MILITARY 
j RECORDS 

{Militar- 
protokoller) 


1643 to 
[j resent 


Name, age, residence, sometimes place of 
birth 


1643-1900: on film (GS); Regional and 

National Archives 

1900-present: division headquarters 

concerned 


12. REVENUE 
& EX- 
PENSE 
RECORDS 

Lensregn- 
shaper) 


1602-1670 


Tax lists, real estate registers, and other 
material containing names of the owners 
and cultivators of farms 


On film (GS); National Archives 


13. DEEDS 

(Diplomatar- 
ium Norwe- 

gicum) 


12th C to 
17th C 


Old documents concerning Norwegian 
history, language, and customs during 
the Middle Ages; deeds and other legal 
documents 


In print (GS) ; all main libraries in 

Norway 


NOTE— Of the many printed sources available, the rural histories (bygdebtfker) which often 
devote most of their space to farm history and the genealogies of families, are a major 
source of information regarding farming communities and their inhabitants. Other 
genealogical periodicals and family histories are available in print. Some of these are 
at the Genealogical Society Library; complete collections are found in various libraries 
and archives in Norway. 



Improvement Era 




The first large-scale commercial continuous slab casting facility 
in the United States, at U. S. Steel's Gary Steel Works. 



ATHOUSAND PROJECTS 

ON THE FIRE ... 



At United States Steel, there's 
something new and different — and 
exciting — stirring all the time. 
Right now, we have nearly a thou- 
sand modernization and improve- 
ment projects in various stages of 
design, construction or break-in 
operation. 

After the expenditure of more 
than 1,000 man-years in laboratory, 
pilot plant and engineering studies, 
the first large-scale commercial 
continuous slab casting facility in 
the United States is now under- 
going break-in operation at our 
Gary, Indiana Steel Works. This new 
unit transforms molten steel into 
high quality, 40-foot- slabs in less 
than an hour. Conventional proc- 
essing takes many hours, some- 
times days. 

The continuous casting process 
is a close companion of basic oxy- 
gen steelmaking, and three basic 
oxygen furnaces have replaced 17 
open hearth furnaces in the Gary 
mill. They feed the steel to the con- 
tinuous casting unit, which provides 



slabs for a hot strip mill that can 
produce hot-rolled sheets in coils 
as wide as 76 inches and weighing 
75,000 pounds. 

Near Houston, United States 
Steel's new Texas Works is taking 
shape for serving the vast and 
growing markets in the Southwest. 
The nation's most powerful electron 
microscope has been installed in 
the Pittsburgh area, and a new cold 
reduction mill and related facilities 
are also being constructed there. 
Two modern bar mills are going up 
in Ohio, and a continuous billet 
casting machine is scheduled for 
completion in Southern California 
in 1968. On stream is a new line 
for pre-painted steel sheets in Bir- 
mingham. In the Chicago-Gary area 
is a new mill for producing light, 
flexible steel foil, and a new six- 
stand cold reduction mill that can 
roll in an hour enough steel to make 
more than a million standard-size 
cans. A new basic oxygen process 
shop is under construction in South 
Chicago, where a giant blast fur- 



nace — as tall as a 20-story office 
building — will also rise against the 
sky. Another project presently in 
construction stage in the Chicago- 
Gary area is a new high speed gal- 
vanizing line. Similar lines will soon 
be in operation on the East Coast 
and in Alabama. 

Our new taconite plant in Minne- 
sota can supply 4.5 million tons of 
pellets annually for use in the pro- 
duction of molten iron. A self-un- 
loading ship— the largest and most 
modern vessel on the Great Lakes 
— is being built to transport these 
pellets to U. S. Steel plants in the 
Chicago-Gary area, and elsewhere, 
for blast furnace consumption. 

It's worth noting, too, that we are 
continuing to equip every new steel- 
making facility at United States 
Steel with the latest available anti- 
pollution devices for air and water. 
We aim to produce the world's best 
steels and products of steel. At the 
same time, we also want to keep 
the air and water clean for our 
neighbors and ourselves. 



(USS) United States Steel 



April 1968 



57 



Speech and the 
Gospel 



By Elder Marion G. Romney 

of the Council of the Twelve 




■ 



peech, accord- 
ing to Webster's 
dictionary, is "the faculty of utter- 
ing articulate sounds or words to 
express thoughts." The objective 
of speech training from the Church 
point of view is to qualify speakers 
to motivate their listeners to live 
the gospel. For this purpose, speech 
has been used from the very be- 
ginning. 

When Adam and Eve, following 
their expulsion from the Garden of 
Eden, called upon the name of the 
Lord, he spoke to them and "gave 
unto them commandments. . . . 
And Adam was obedient unto the 
commandments. . . . 

"And after many days an an- 
gel of the Lord appeared unto 
Adam, . . . 

". . . saying: This thing [the 



*From a talk given in the speech de- 
partment, MIA June Conference, 1967. 



58 



Improvement Era 



"Speech that motivates people 
to live the gospel 
must do three things...." 



sacrifice Adam was offering] is a this people; and when ye are of wrong; and the Personage who ad- 

similitude of the sacrifice of the that age go to the land Antum, dressed me said that all their 

Only Begotten of the Father. . . ," unto a hill which shall be called creeds were an abomination in his 

Then the Holy Ghost "fell upon Shim; and there have I deposited sight; that those professors were 

Adam," and by his own voice God unto the Lord all the sacred en- all corrupt; that: 'they draw near 

taught Adam the gospel and "Adam gravings concerning this people. to me with their lips, but their 

blessed God, . . . saying: . . . be- "And behold, ye shall take the hearts are far from me, they teach 

cause of my transgression my eyes plates of Nephi unto yourself, and for doctrines the commandments 

are opened, and in this life I shall the remainder shall ye leave in the of men, having a form of godliness, 

have joy, and again in the flesh I place where they are; and ye shall but they deny the power thereof.' 

shall see God. engrave on the plates of Nephi all "He again forbade me to join 

"And Eve, his wife, heard all the things that ye have observed with any of them; and many other 

these things and was glad. . . . concerning this people. things did he say unto me, which 

"And Adam and Eve blessed the "And I, Mormon, . . . remem- I cannot write at this time. . . ." 

name of God, and they made all bered the things which Ammaron (Joseph Smith 2:17-20.) 

things known unto their sons and commanded me." (Morm. 1:2-5.) Joseph never forgot this speech, 

their daughters." (See Moses 5:4- Perhaps speech was never more nor did he ever fail to follow the 

12.) effectively used in teaching youth directions these two divine Beings 

While the Old Testament prophet than when it was used by the gave him on this occasion. 

Samuel was a small child, he was Father and the Son in the Sacred Speech, as used in each of 

instructed by the audible voice Grove in the spring of 1820, when the foregoing illustrations, accom- 

of the Lord concerning the im- they spoke to a 14-year-old boy. plished three things: 

pending judgment to fall upon the This is his record: 1. It challenged and held the 

house of Eli. ". . . When the light rested upon attention of the hearers. 

Mormon, for whom the Book of me I saw two Personages, whose 2. It conveyed a message. 

Mormon was named, tells of a brightness and glory defy all 3. It inspired the hearer to works 

short speech, directed to him when description, standing above me in of righteousness, 

he was about ten years old, that the air. One of them spake unto Every speech that motivates 

set the pattern for the whole of his me, calling me by name and said, people to live the gospel more fully 

life. This is his report of the pointing to the other— This is My must accomplish these three things. 

speech: Beloved Son. Hear Him! In the art of teaching and train- 

". . . about the time that Am- "My object in going to inquire ing, Jesus was, as in all other 

maron hid up the records unto the of the Lord was to know which of things, the Master. "Whether he 

Lord, he came unto me, . . . and all the sects was right, that I might was teaching the multitudes, or 

. . . said unto me: I perceive that know which to join. No sooner, groups, or individuals, ... [he] 

thou art a sober child, and art therefore, did I get possession of knew how to interest his listeners 

quick to observe." Notice how myself, so as to be able to speak, in a pre-eminent degree." (Charles 

adroitly Ammaron engaged Mor- than I asked the Personages who Francis McKay, The Art of Jesus 

mon's interest! stood above me in the light, which as a Teacher, p. 48. ) 

"Therefore, when ye are about of all the sects was right— and which One of his chief vehicles "in 

twenty and four years old I would I should join. winning and holding the attention" 

that ye should remember the things "I was answered that I must join of his listeners was the parable, 

that ye have observed concerning none of them, for they were all through which with exquisite skill 



April 1968 59 



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he pointed out the "analogies which 
exist between things natural and 
things spiritual." (Ibid.) You will 
remember, of course, that he al- 
ways selected the natural things 
with which his hearers were 
familiar. 

Sometimes he drew attention 
with a striking declaration: "The 
scribes and the Pharisees sit in 
Moses' seat: All therefore whatso- 
ever they bid you observe, that 
observe and do; but do not ye after 
their works: for they say, and do 
not." (Matt. 23:2-3.) 

Often he confronted his hearers 
with a challenging question: "How 
can Satan cast out Satan?" (Mark 
3:23.) "What think ye of Christ? 
Whose son is he?" (Matt. 22:42.) 
"For what shall it profit a man, 
if he shall gain the whole world, 
and lose his own soul?" (Mark 
8:36.) . 

Frequently he directed his re- 
marks to a specific person: "Simon, 
I have somewhat to say unto thee." 
(Luke 7:40.) "Thomas, because 
thou hast seen me, thou hast be- 
lieved. . . ." (John 20:29.) 

Every time Jesus spoke, he chal- 
lenged the attention of those to 
whom he spoke, although it may 
not always have been in the same 
way. The thing that sustained 
the continuing attention of his lis- 
teners, however, was the message 
he gave them. He never spoke 
without giving a challenging, 
stimulating message. Every speaker 
must do this if he is to be at all 
effective. 

Youth must be schooled in the 



Improvement Era 



The only sure way 
is to speak 
by the Spirit.' 



technique of speaking. In learning 
to speak in Church situations, their 
aim must be to motivate the lis- 
tener to learn and live the gospel. 
To do this effectively, those who 
train them must themselves have a 
thorough knowledge of the gospel, 
which can be acquired only 
through study and contemplation. 
On this point Elder John A. Widt- 
soe wrote: 

"To understand religious truth, 
it must be studied. The gospel of 
Jesus Christ comprehends all other 
knowledge. It is the philosophy 
that explains the whole of man's 
relationship to the universe. It 
invites the deepest study and the 
severest scrutiny. In religion as 
in science the more a subject is 
studied, the more perfect is our 
knowledge of it. . . . 

"In the progress towards truth 
every traveler must walk upon his 
own feet. Study of the principles 
of truth is therefore required of 
all." (John A. Widtsoe, In Search 
of Truth, pp. 116-17. ) 

"There is no excellence without 
labor. I had studied the gospel as 
carefully as any science. The 
literature of the Church I had ac- 
quired and read. During my 
spare time, day by day, I had in- 
creased my gospel learning. . . . 
The claims of Joseph Smith the 
Prophet had been examined and 
weighed. No scientific claim had 
received a more thorough analysis." 
(John A. Widtsoe, In a Sunlit 
Land, p. 158.) 

The messages for speeches of the 
youth should come from the same 



April 1968 



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The Savior spoke 

of things familiar 
to his hearers." 



source as do the messages of their 
elders. 

To them the Lord said on 
one occasion: ". . . the elders, 
priests and teachers of this church 
shall teach the principles of my 
gospel, which are in the Bible and 
the Book of Mormon, in the which 
is the fulness of the gospel." 
(D&C 42:12.) 

On another occasion he said: 

"And I give unto you a com- 
mandment that you shall teach 
one another the doctrine of the 
kingdom. 

"Teach ye diligently and my 
grace shall attend you, that you 
may be instructed more perfectly 
in theory, in principle, in doctrine, 
in the law of the gospel, in all 
things that pertain unto the king- 
dom of God, that are expedient 
for you to understand; 

"Of things both in heaven and 
in the earth, and under the earth; 
things which have been, things 
which are, things which must 
shortly come to pass; things which 
are at home, things which are 
abroad; the wars and the per- 
plexities of the nations, and the 
judgments which are on the land; 
and a knowledge also of countries 
and of kingdoms — 

"That ye may be prepared in all 
things when I shall send you again 
to magnify the calling whereunto 
I have called you, and the mission 
with which I have commissioned 
you." (D&C 88:77-80.) 

These instructions allow adequate 
scope for subject matter. What- 
ever the subject, our challenge is to 



Improvement Era 



train our youth how, in their speak- 
ing, to relate their messages to the 
saving principles and ordinances of 
the gospel. 

Our facility to accomplish this 
will improve as we develop our 
ability to inspire them to works of 
righteousness. 

The sure and only way to do this 
is to speak by the Spirit. How we 
are to get the Spirit was made per- 
fectly plain by the Lord when to 
the priesthood, whom he had in- 
structed to "teach the principles 
of [the] gospel, which are in the 
Bible and the Book of Mormon," 
he added: 

"And [you] shall observe the 
covenants and the church articles 
to do them, and these shall be 
[your] teachings, as [you] shall be 
directed by the Spirit. 

"And the Spirit shall be given 
unto you by the prayer f faith; 
and if ye receive not the Spirit ye 
shall not teach." (D&C 42:12-15.) 

"No man," said President Heber 
J. Grant, "can teach the gospel of 
Jesus Christ under the inspiration 
of the living God and with power 
from on high unless he is living 
it." (Gospel Standards, p. 72.) 

And so, my beloved co-workers, 
go forward. By precept and exam- 
ple teach and train the youth of 
Israel to speak by the power of the 
Spirit. 

You can assure them that the 
Lord has made it clear that there 
is a lot of speaking yet to be 
done in winning and keeping souls 
for Jesus the Christ and for 
his Church. O 



April 1968 




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63 




Part I. Challenge and Response (Continued) 




he third spurious proposition 
is Bishop Spaulding's 
announcement that "the original text with the Prophet's 
translation are [sic] available for our investigation." 141 
This statement, as Professor Pack noted, "is a very mis- 
leading one. In the first place, we do not have the original 
text, at most only three small fragments of it. . . . In the 
second place these fragments cannot be considered as form- 
ing part of the text of the Book of Abraham." 142 But Dr. 
Pack has overlooked the most important point of all, which 
is that the "three small fragments" themselves are by no 
means the original text. And that is an all-important point, 
since if our experts are to pass judgment on Smith's under- 
standing of any document, they must absolutely see what 
it is that he is interpreting or translating. As we shall see, 
the experts accused Joseph Smith and the Mormons of 
aking significant alterations in their reproductions of the 
Facsimiles, and even of out-and-out invention of some of 
the figures: without the originals we cannot test these very 
grave charges. Professor E. J. Banks, discoursing at the 
University of Utah, pontifically declared that "the Mormon 
elders made, a fatal mistake" when they talked about papyri, 
because "the inscriptions are not upon papyrus, but upon 
small clay objects . . . ," which news went abroad to the 



64 



Improvement Era 



Spalding leads them in a 
chorus of denunciation of the Prophet sung in 

perfect unison, but when the parties undertake to sing solo 
without his direction, strange things begin to happen. 



world in the pages of the eminent Literary Digest. 1 * 3 Again, 
only if we have the originals can we give a definitive reply 
to such wild accusations. In 1842 an article in the New 
York Herald actually declared that the papyri did not come 
from Egypt at all, but were "discovered, we presume by 
Joseph Smith's grandfather." 144 Only the original docu- 
ments could prove to the world that they were not 
forgeries. 

When we come to discuss the Facsimiles one by one, we 
shall have occasion to note what drastic alterations they 
have suffered through the years at the hands of their various 
copyists. Here let us briefly indicate by way of illustration 
the sort of indignities that these much-reproduced docu- 
ments have had to put up with. To cite a recent example, 
the 1965 printing of George Reynolds' and J. M. Sjodahl's 
valuable Commentary on the Pearl of Great Price is adorned 
by a dust jacket depicting in greatly magnified form the 
impressive figure of a lion-headed deity seated on a throne 
in a boat — obviously Figure 3 in Facsimile 2. But in earlier 
engravings of the facsimile, as well as in other hypocephali 
resembling it, the figure has not a lion's head, which makes 
no sense, but the head of an ibis, which makes very good 
sense. Again, the crocodile that lurks at the bottom of Fac- 
simile 1 was actually turned into a cat in the official English 
reproduction of 1842! In earlier reproductions Figure 2 in 
Facsimile 2 is seen holding a long staff, surmounted by 
the well-known jackal standard, but in later editions of the 
Pearl of Great Price, including the one in use today, the 
staff has disappeared with the result that many Latter-day 
Saints insist on seeing in the jackal (turned upside down!) 
the figure of a bird. It is as if the Mormons had felt that 
these drawings, since they are mere symbols anyway, may 
be copied pretty much as one pleases. 

But when Bishop Spalding sent by far the worst copies 
of all to his eight judges with the announcement that they 
were in a position to criticize "the original text," he was 
way out of bounds. As recently as 1963 an eminent Egyp- 
tologist mistook the wdjat-eyc of Figure 7 in Facsimile 2 for 
a fan — an egregious blunder justifiable solely on the grounds 
of bad copying. Until scholars have access to the original 
documents, their conclusions based on the old engravings 
can only be regarded as tentative. 

(4) Another mistaken premise, and one by which almost 
everybody is taken in, is, in the words of the New York 
Times, that "the sacred Mormon text was susceptible of 
accurate and complete analysis," and had actually received 
the "thoughtful consideration of the world's foremost Orien- 



We Should Explain 



• The first draft of this series of articles was written some 
years before the Church came into possession of the recently 
acquired papyri, and had already been slated to appear in 
the Era when big news broke. They were never meant as 
an examination of the new evidence, though they do provide 
a necessary approach to it. Since the new problems could 
not be dealt with instantly, and the preliminary material was 
already at hand, it was decided to release the historical back- 
ground material while working on the other. 

Many people have asked impatiently why the Church has 
not put the papyri into the hands of the learned. The answer 
is simple: it is because they have already been in the hands 
of recognized scholars for many years, although no Latter- 
day Saint was even aware of their existence until about two 
years ago. At no time have the manuscripts not been just 
as available to Egyptologists as they are now to members of 
the Church. Since the Church obtained them, they have 
been made available to everyone. It is not the Mormons who 
have kept the documents out of the hands of the scholars 
but the other way around. If it had not been for Professor 
Aziz S. Atiya, we should still know nothing about the papyri; 
he is in a very real sense their discoverer. 

With the sudden appearance of the long-lost papyri and 
the great surge of popular interest in the Pearl of Great 
Price and in things Egyptian, it was necessary, before every- 
thing else, to take precautions against certain basic mis- 
understandings. First of all, a preliminary notice was in 
order- — just enough to make it clear that we were quite 
aware that some of the fragments were obviously from the 
Book of the Dead and that Joseph Smith had engaged in 
extensive speculation about some of the writings which, in 
the present state of our knowledge, no one is obligated to 
accept as scripture. Along with this we took the calculated 
risk of offending both defenders and critics of the Book of 
Abraham in order to forestall premature speculations and 
hasty conclusions. 

The critics of the Pearl of Great Price, like those of the 
Book of Mormon, have always had a weakness for instant 
solutions. As soon as anyone starts putting a long equation 
on the blackboard or begins to demonstrate the steps in 
the solution of an involved problem, these students cry out, 
"Never mind all that — you are only stalling; give us the 



April 1968 



65 



Many proofs of the experts' conclusions were promised — 

but none ever came. 



answer!" They would prefer to have the teacher say, 
"Students, I am a mathematician, and the answer is zero 
because I say so. Class dismissed." This has been the in- 
gratiating method of the Pearl of Great Price critics from the 
beginning. But it is not enough to tell people what we think 
the answer is to this particular problem; we want them to 
see why we believe our answer is right, and to understand 
how it has been derived. We have been taken to task for 
quoting in reply to the Egyptologists of 1912 the observations 
of Mormons who were not Egyptologists. We quoted them 
because what they said was to the point, and the Egyptolo- 
gists never answered them. One does not have to be a 
meteorologist to report that the sky is clear or that it is 
snowing. 

As an example of how complicated the issues can become, 
we call attention to the March 1968 issue of a privately but 
widely circulated news sheet, "The Salt Lake City Messen- 
ger," announcing in characteristically sensational headlines 
"The Fall of the Book of Abraham." At last! 

The publishers of the news sheet were kind enough to 
provide the reader with a demonstration of their Egyptology 
at work, in the form of a transcription and translation by a 
Mr. Hewards of a section of one of the LDS papyri. The pic- 
ture of a swallow on the fragment makes it possible for even 
the rankest amateur like this writer to spot at once the corre- 
sponding passage in Budge's much-published translation as 
Chapter 86 of the Book of the Dead. The student who takes 
the pains to compare Budge's translation of Ani, Mr. He- 
wards' purported translation of the LDS fragment, and the 
LDS fragment itself will soon discover that Mr. H. is not 
translating the LDS fragment at all, but simply paraphrasing 
Budge. The papyrus of Ani and the LDS fragment are much 
alike, btit they are far from identical, and whenever the two 
differ it is the text of Budge that Mr. H. translates, in the 
language of Budge, and NOT the LDS manuscript, which he 
claims to be reading. Space will not allow here the presenta- 
tion of the many passages in the translation in which this is 
glaringly apparent. 

This is another example of a principle that has been only 
too fully illustrated in Pearl of Great Price criticism, namely, 
that it is easy to fool the public on matters of which the 
public knows nothing. No one is more eager than this writer 
to get out of the critical Slough of Despond and start discuss- 
ing the wonderful discoveries that are now casting a strange 
new light on the Book of Abraham. But before we can do 
that, we must deal with a lot of preliminary questions that 
others have raised. — H.N. 



talists." 1415 How much thoughtful consideration they gave 
is apparent in the exceeding brevity of their letters, in which 
they still had time to drop such revealing tags as, "It is 
difficult to deal seriously with Joseph Smith's impudent 
fraud . . ." (Sayce); ". . . notes to his facsimiles cannot be 
taken seriously by any scholar . . ." (Mercer); "The 'Book 
of Abraham,' it is hardly necessary to say, is a pure fabri- 
cation . . ." (Mace); "His interpretations are of course all 
rubbish!" (H. Woodward, 1903); ". . . the professed ex- 
planations are too absurd to be noticed . . ." (Petrie); 
". . . rather comical . . . amusing ignorance . . ." (Peters). 

If such individuals could not take the thing seriously, 
they should have turned the assignment over to others who 
would be willing to do so if only for the sake of argument. 
When the Mormons objected to the offhanded and con- 
temptuous treatment this very important subject was getting, 
Dr. Mercer replied by admitting that "ill-temper was 
shown," that "animus [was] evident," and that "several 
of the scholars were disgusted with what they sincerely 
believed to be an imposition. . . ." 14G He also admitted 
that "the reply of each scholar was brief, very little time 
being devoted to a study of the Prophet's work in general." 
He could, however, readily explain both their haste and 
their superficiality: as to the first, "it required only a glance 
to find out that the interpretation and the translation were 
absolutely wrong in every detail." As to the second, "the 
scholars felt that linguistically ... the subject was not 
worth much of their valuable time. Hence their brief 
replies." 147 However, the Mormons could rest assured that 
they had received the full treatment, since the final esti- 
mate, presented by Mercer himself, was given "as sincerely 
and as scientifically as possible." 148 

How strange then, that Bishop Spalding, joining his voice 
with Mercer's in the final benediction, defends himself by 
declaring that his "pamphlet makes no pretention of being 
a scientific treatise." 14 '-' Widtsoe the scientist was properly 
amazed. Here, surely, is a strange turn of things after all 
that talk of "thoughtful consideration" and "accurate and 
complete analysis." "I was amazed, therefore, to read in 
your letter, your vigorous refusal to become classed as 
scientific, and your denial of any intent to conduct such 
an inquiry." This opens the panel of judges to the charge 
of "careless superficiality. Your work has only begun. You 
must either admit defeat or you must carry on to the 
end." 150 Again the impulsive Mercer admitted that there 
was more to be done, but met the challenge only with 
clumsy evasion in the declaration "that many proofs of the 



66 



Improvement Era 



correctness of his conclusions could be furnished if de- 
sired." 351 But when the Mormons were most outspoken in 
their desire, none of the many proofs were forthcoming. 

The Spalding party cannot have it both ways. They 
cannot claim a calm, thorough, scientific investigation while 
admitting ill-temper, haste, and indifference. We are not 
interested in the reasons, however valid, for denying "accu- 
rate and complete analysis" to the Facsimiles; we are only 
interested in the fact that it was denied. Granted that the 
experts had the best reasons in the world for not bothering 
to give thoughtful consideration to the documents, by dis- 
cussing those reasons Mercer has effectively refuted Bishop 
Spalding's claim that thoughtful consideration was given. 
Also, we are not interested in why the authorities could not 
read the hieroglyphs; their excuses are perfectly legitimate, 
and what they amount to is an admission that the problem 
is too hard for them —they have flunked the test. Very well, 
we may dismiss them without prejudice; they cannot be 
held responsible if they are given a text to read that is, for 
whatever reason, beyond their capacity. But in leaving the 
room, let them not boast of their triumphs, and gloat over 
what they consider the manifest incapacity of others. After 
Mercer's long reply, the experts absolutely refused to discuss 
the matter any further; even Professor Breasted, "who seems 
very much interested in the matter," according to Mercer, 
". . . thinks that there is nothing further to add. . . . 
thinks it almost useless to reply." 152 "Almost" is not good 
enough with so much at stake; Dr. Widtsoe could make 
allowances for the scholars, "busy men who are anxious to 
get back to their work," but hardly for Bishop Spalding, 
who had started and engineered the whole thing: "It was 
your investigation, not theirs." 153 Just when the Mormons 
"hoped for an exhaustive discussion" after the very brief 
preliminaries, Spalding banged the door, deftly evading all 
the real questions, as Sjodahl observed, while "at the same 
time the pamphlet is being circulated, and the impression 
goes out with it that it is unanswered and unanswerable. 
. . . This, we say, is the impression which the Bishop 
permits to go forth, by ignoring the other side of the 
argument." 154 

(5) Another basic proposition of Dr. Spaulding, and one 
that is vital to his case, is that among the experts there is 
practically complete agreement as to the real meaning of 
the hieroglyphics. 155 Aside from the fact that none of the 
hieroglyphics had been read is the not minor consideration 
that the experts agreed on one point only — and they were 
agreed on that before they ever heard from Bishop Spalding. 



They "join without a dissenting paragraph in the con- 
demnation" of Smith. 15fi That is easy enough to explain 
without even any reference to religion: Joseph Smith as 
a rank outsider was bound to call forth "sundry expres- 
sions of contempt at the efforts of a non-professional trans- 
lator," 157 for, as R. C. Webb observes, it is only natural 
"that a person trained in any given line should view with 
impatience the efforts of one not so trained. " 15S This is 
particularly so in the case of Egyptologists, for reasons 
already noted; also, they are incurable individualists, and 
even more impatient of each other's ignorance than most 
professionals — the one thing that could make them close 
ranks and agree was the intrusion of an outsider. 159 "They 
agree, to be sure, in denouncing Smith's captions," wrote 
Webb, "but this is not surprising — denouncing Smith is a 
sort of habit — but they disagree on all other points." 100 

Presidents Francis M. Lyman and Joseph J. Cannon in 
the British Mission had commented on this interesting 
phenomenon some years before, when some English Egyp- 
tologists had given their opinion of the interpretation of 
the Facsimiles: "We were very much struck by their unity 
in declaring the Prophet's interpretations bosh, rubbish, 
and the extremely wide differences between their own 
interpretations." 101 It was the same in 1903 as in 1912: 
perfect unanimity in denouncing Joseph Smith, and dis- 
agreement in everything else. Here we see the wisdom of 
having no collusion among the experts — Spalding leads 
them in a chorus of denunciation of the Prophet sung in 
perfect unison, but when the parties undertake to sing solo 
without his direction, strange things begin to happen. 

Professor George Barton innocently gave the game away 
when he wrote: "In reality these disagreements are simply 
marks that the scholars wrote without collusion." 102 Pre- 
cisely; on particular points on which they comment without 
collusion and without reference to Joseph Smith, they fail 
signally to agree; but when they mention Joseph Smith, 
it is in a context of prior understanding in which they 
have seen eye to eye all their lives. 

The Mormon amateurs had a field day listing the points 
of disagreement that emerged every time the authorities 
ventured to give scholarly opinions of their own — apart 
from their one common article of faith about Joseph Smith. 
In reply, the Spalding party was forced to fall back on the 
most desperate and bankrupt authoritarianism, insisting 
that while to the amateur the differences might appear 
glaring enough, "the expert sees no discrepancy," — '"an 
argument [writes Webb] unworthy of him [Mercer] or of 



April 1968 



67 



On not a single point do all the authorities agree, and no two of 



any other person professing to be a careful scholar." 163 
We need not list all the points of disagreement here; 164 it 
will be enough to give a sampling of opinions regarding 
Facsimile 1: 

Deveria (whose authority is later accepted by Spalding): 
". . . the soul of Osiris in the form of a hawk . . . Osiris 
reviving on the funeral couch. The god Anubis bringing 
about the resurrection of Osiris." 

Petrie: ". . . the well known scene of Anubis preparing 
the body of a dead man. Figure 1 is the hawk Horus. 
Figure 2 is the dead person. Figure 3 is Anubis." 

Breasted: "Number 1 depicts a figure reclining on a 
couch, with a priest officiating. . . . The reclining figure 
. . . represents Osiris rising from the dead. Over his head 
is a bird, in which form Isis is represented." 

Peters: "Apparently the plate . . . represents an embalmer 
preparing a body for burial. At the head the soul (Kos) 
is flying away in the form of a bird. ... In the waters 
below the earth I see a crocodile waiting to seize and devour 
the dead if he be not properly protected by ritual embalm- 
ing." 

Meyer: ". . . the body of the dead lying on a Ba' (bier) 
... the soul in the shape of a bird flying above it, and a 
priest approaching it." 

Lythgoe: ". . . merely the usual scene of the mummy 
upon its bier. The idolatrous priest . . . was [Dr. Lythgoe 
explained] merely the familiar figure of the god Anubis, 
'protector of mummies' . . . leaning over it in a position 
as if to keep it from harm." 

Professors Sayce, Mace, and Mercer have nothing what- 
ever to say about Facsimile 1, which made the Mormons 
wonder, since precisely these three were the most outspoken 
of all in denouncing Joseph Smith, thus seeming to confirm 
the rule that the less real knowledge one has, the more one 
must rely on bluster and invective. 

This leaves us with six brief statements (one by the 
outsider Deveria) pointing out only the salient and obvious 
features of a thoroughly familiar scene. On not a single 
point do all the authorities agree, and no two of them agree 
on all points. What to some is just a dead man is to others 
Osiris himself; what to some is an ordinary priest or 
embalmer about to cut open a cadaver is to others Anubis 
himself, leaning over the body to protect it; what to some 
is a body being laid away is to others a man rising from 
the dead; what to some is a man's soul flying away is to 
another the Horus hawk approaching and to yet others the 
lady Isis. 



It was entirely fitting and proper for the Mormons to make 
the most of these discrepancies, for they are by no means 
minor ones. The scholars go out of their way to hammer 
home the point that the things which Joseph Smith had 
misinterpreted were painfully obvious to any scholar. The 
learned jury had been allowed to make the problem as 
easy as possible for themselves— and us — and had chosen 
to interpret only the easiest, most familiar, and most im- 
portant figures in the drawings, telling us that if Joseph 
Smith had known the first thing about Egyptian he could 
not possibly have missed the meaning of everything as he 
did. They felt as the critics of 1845 felt, that "the whole 
thing is too gross to bear patiently, too painful to laugh at," 
in view of the "familiar and now understood ideographic 
character of Egyptian. . . ." That is why Mercer could 
write: "It is complained that the scholars did not interpret 
all the figures of these facsimiles. . . . They probably felt 
as I did, that their time was too valuable to spend on such 
scientific work as that of Joseph Smith's guesses [which] 
. . . cannot be taken seriously by any scholar." 165 

What we have here, the experts assure us, is "a well 
known scene" (Petrie), "merely the usual scene" (Lythgoe), 
"a very familiar papyrus . . . (the) true meaning is quite 
obvious and constant . . ." (Mercer), ". . . available in 
untold thousands" of copies (Breasted). Since all our 
authorities have seen untold thousands of reproductions of 
this very scene, one might suppose that they had long since 
come to perfect agreement as to just what it represents. 
Even the layman, we learn, is without excuse in such a 
simple matter, for "five minutes study in an Egyptian 
gallery of any museum should be enough to convince any 
educated man of the clumsiness of the imposture," 166 while 
"by comparing his notes with any elementary book of 
Egyptian language and religion" Smith's folly "becomes 
unquestionably evident." 167 The whole thing is just too 
easy for words, and that is why we may be permitted to 
raise an eyebrow when the authorities start giving their 
various opinions, or hesitating to give them. "The things 
that puzzled the inspired Mormon translator," the Times 
article reports, "were no puzzle at all to Dr. Lythgoe." 168 
Three cheers for Dr. Lythgoe. Only why do his explana- 
tions sound so radically different from that which was pro- 
pounded by his learned colleagues? (To be continued) 

FOOTNOTES 

lil F. S. Spalding, Joseph Smith as Translator, p. 18. 

]11> F. J. Pack, in Era, Vol. 16, p. 335. 

143 E J. Banks, in The Literary Digest, July 10, 1915, p. 66. 

34J R. G. Bennett, in the New York Herald, April 3, 1842, p. 2. 



68 



Improvement Era 



them agree on all points.' 



145 Netu York Times, Magazine Section, Dec. 29, 1912, p. 12. 

U6 S. A. B. Mercer, in Utah Survey, Vol. 1, pp. 9, 12. 

™Ibid., p. 8. 

us Ibid., p. 4. 

" U F. S. Spalding, in Era, Vol. 16, p. 611. 

350 John A. Widtsoe, in Era, Vol. 16, p. 616. 

B1 S. A. B. Mercer, in Utah Survey, Vol. 1, p. 11. 

^S. A. B. Mercer, in Era, Vol. 16, p. 611. 

lri3 John A. Widtsoe, in Era, Vol. 16, p. 458. 

154 J. M. Sjodahl, in Era, Vol. 16, pp. 1100-01. 

^Bishop Spalding labors this point in Era, Vol. 16, pp. 615-16. 
"Their comments do not vary in any consequential particular," New 
York Times, Magazine Section, Dec. 29, 1912, p. 5. 

""Ibid., p. 4. 

1B7 R. C. Webb, in Era, Vol. 16, p. 453. As an outsider Joseph 
Smith could only prejudice the experts by not using their terminology, 
even when giving the same interpretation as theirs; ibid., p. 1079, 

i~*Ibid., p. 1077. 



ir,9 In 1947 an attempt was made to organize an international society 
of Egyptologists, such a society as exists in almost all professions; the 
attempt was a complete failure. For an example of Egyptologists speaking 
of each other in much the same terms in which Spalding's jury spoke 
of Joseph Smith, see A. Wiedemann, in Rcceuil des Travaux, Vol. 8 
(1886), p. 143; A. Piehl, ibid., pp. 74-83, and Vol. 8 (1887), pp. 
191ff; also Wiedemann, ibid., p. 196, and E. Chassinat, Vol. 20 
(1889), pp. 1-31. 

100 R. C. Webb, in Era, Vol. 17 (1914), p. 321. 

1(il Beport of Junius F. Wells, in Era, Vol. 16, pp. 341ff. 

102 G. Barton, in Era, Vol. 16, p. 614. 

1<; 3B C. Webb, in Era, Vol. 16, p. 1080. 

""There are lists by B. H. Roberts, in Era, Vol. 16, pp. 320f, 
and Vol. 17, pp. 317-20. 

103 S. A. B. Mercer, in Era, Vol. 16, p. 613. 

106 Neto York Times, Magazine Section, Dec. 29, 1912, p. 4. 

a67 S. A. B. Mercer, in Spalding, Joseph Smith as Translator, p. 29. 

t<K Neto York Times, loc. cit. 




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rom widely separated areas of 
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has come: "I'm glad the General Authorities are planning temples 
at Provo and Ogden, Utah. That will give us several years, ivhile 
they are being built and dedicated, before the end of the ivorld." 

Yes, difficidt times are ahead for the inhabitants of the earth, 
culminating at an unspecified time in the loosing of the elements 
and the destruction of great cities and lands as the very earth con- 
vidses with the second coming of Jesus the Christ. But for the 
faithful it will not be the end. 

They shall live in the millennium when the Christ shall 
personally reign. They shall mingle and exchange views with 
resurrected beings. What a glorious opportunity shall be theirs— 
ivith Satan and all his potvers bound— to marry, to rear their 
children, and to do the work of the Lord in the temples and 
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Elder {later President of the Church) Wilford Woodruff 
said in the Salt Lake Tabernacle September 16, 1877 : 

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this work of redemption; and Temples will appear all over this 
land of Joseph, — North and South America — and also in Europe 



Improvement Era 



and elsewhere; and all the descendants of Shem, Ham, and 
Japheth who received not the Gospel in the flesh, must be officiated 
for in the Temples of God, before the Savior can present the 
kingdom to the Father, saying, 'It is finished.' " (Journal of Dis- 
courses, Vol 19, p. 230.) 

President Brigham Young said that temples are built "as fast 
as the work requires, for the express purpose of redeeming our 
dead." (JD, Vol. 2, p. 138.) He also promised the building of 
hundreds and thousands of temples. (See JD, Vol. 10, p. 254, and 
Vol. 3, p. 372.) 

Speaking at general conference on April 5, 1918, Charles W. 
Penrose, second counselor in the First Presidency, said, ". . . but 
when the glorious millennial day shall be fully ushered in, temples 
will be built at various points on this great land of Zion lAmerica] 
ivhich extends from the north of the continent to the south thereof, 
and the work for the dead will continue, and the saviors on Mount 
Zion will be multiplied in our posterity. . . ." (Conference Report, 
April 1918, p. 16.) 

President of the Church Joseph F. Smith said that temples 
were "to dot Europe." (Der Stern, 1906, p. 332.) President David 
0. McKay has stated that the Swiss Temple is only the first of 
several temples to be built in Europe. (Deseret News, April 3, 
1953, pp. Al, A9.) 

The millennium is to dawn with the coming of the Savior. The 
actual time of the second coming is the best-kept secret of the 
universe. Not even the angels of heaven know. But prophetic 
signs have been recorded in the scriptures, and good men and 
women have studied and pondered. 

The present-day work for members of the Church has been 
well defined: Live the covenants taken at baptism and elsewhere 
and renewed with the weekly partaking of the sacrament; labor 
faithfully in the tvards and stakes, missions and branches; rear 
families in righteousness; become "saviors on Mount Zion" by 
activity both in genealogical research and in temple attendance; do 
not fret unnecessarily concerning the future. In the words of Alma, 
this life is "a time to prepare to meet God." (Al. 12:24-.) And an- 
other Book of Mormon prophet said: "And behold, I tell you these 
things that ye may learn wisdom; that ye may learn that when 
ye are in the service of your fellow beings ye are only in the 
service of your God." (Mosiah 2:17.) O 



April 1968 



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In the Ruby mountains of Eastern Nevada 
swimming, riding, hiking, packtrips, etc. 
Supervised by certified education instruc- 
tors. Two, five week sessions. Girls 8-18. 
CONTACT 

(Mr. & Mrs. David Neff, Arthur Route, 

Wells, Nevada.) 



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sheets up to 8V2" x 14" (9c each for 
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postage plus 25c for handling) 

STEVENSON'S 
GENEALOGICAL CENTER 
230 West 1230 North, Provo, Utah 84601 



SPIRIT LAKE LODGE in the high Uintahs makes 
your ward party a success. 

Write to Steve Putnam, 
5718 S. 625 East, Murray, Utah 84107. 



71 







Today's Family 



By Florence B. Pinnock 



Empty 
Bookends 





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flour sifter 

without 

flour, a 

pen with no ink, a fireplace minus 
logs, and a pair of empty book- 
ends— all are useless. Nothing 
appears more forlorn than two 
bookends standing side by side 
with nary a book in sight, unless 
it is bookshelves filled with trinkets. 

Have you ever walked into a 
house and without knowing the 
owners wished that they were your 
friends just by seeing the overflow 
of well-chosen books in each room? 
A house becomes a home by use, 
and a part of its utility is the role 
played by books. A kitchen stove 
helps feed a man's physical hun- 
ger, and a wall full of books serves 
his mental needs. 

A small boy said, "I'd like to 
have a million books someday. The 
first thing my daddy ever gave 
me was a book. As soon as I was 



Improvement Era 



born he bought a book and showed 
it to my mother and said, 'This is 
for our son.' " What a heritage to 
give a son! It will take him any- 
where his heart and mind desire. 

Parents should take their children 
by the hand and lead them to 
sources of knowledge. Have you 
found the time to introduce each 
one of your children to the public 
library? If this has been done 
with anticipation and enthusiasm, a 
habit will be formed of lingering 
in libraries. There is a certain 
smell, especially in the children's 
section of a library, that is a 
combination of Christmas morning, 
your birthday, and your favorite 
person. Can you close your eyes 
and imagine this aroma and feel 
the joy as a grownup dropped you 
off alone at the library and said 
he'd not be back for you until 
noon? What happiness it was to 
look around at rows upon rows of 
books, to choose two or three of 
them, to walk over to a small chair 
by a low table and settle down 
for a voyage out of this world. 
Perhaps you'd glance once or 
twice over at that very special 
woman seated behind the desk, and 
in your heart you'd decide she had 
the very best job in the whole 
world. She too loved books. 

Books are living creatures; that 
is, if you make them so. They are 
something to love, to defend, to 
enjoy, to investigate, and to con- 
sume. Books make wonderful re- 
wards to give to children. A 
carefully chosen book can be a 
most personal gift. 

The 24-karat, lasting kind of gold 
can be found in books. At a flip 
of a page it is possible to be in 
Greece, in Chile, or in Alaska. A 
book has the power to take you 



into a world where you are the 
greatest scientist, the most gifted 
artist, the best cook, a graceful 
ballet dancer, or a ski expert, with- 
out your even leaving your chair. 
You can explore this earth along 
with Columbus, Cook, or Byrd. 
You can let your imagination soar 
with the author to the year 2500 
and taste the wonders of science; 
or you can forget the future, walk 
back through history, and perhaps 
find out the plan of things. By 
reading, you get a view from the 
top of the mountain, and the "now" 
is anywhere the book takes you. 

Vision, courage, and solace can 
come from the printed page. Learn 
to think as your eyes travel over 
the words, and relate to each writ- 
ten thought. Try reading with a 
pencil in your hand to keep your 
mind on the contents, and you 
might even take a bite off the 
eraser as the excitement mounts. 

Reading is a friend of change. 
To know what others think and 
do can help you adapt to this 
chameleon world. Reading will 
also give you the knowledge you 
need to make more correct choices. 
Be unafraid of new ideas and read 
more than one side of a subject 
so that you can form an honest 
opinion of your own. 

Studying and reading help pre- 
pare you for "always." It's a hap- 
pier way to grow older. Fresh, new 
ideas keep a mind alert and capable 
of thinking, reasoning, and learn- 
ing. Daily reading has a stabilizing 
effect on a person; it provides one 
with something to talk about. It 
is impossible to give something you 
don't have. Collect the thoughts 
of others. A reader becomes a 
giver, an interesting, informative, 
and challenging individual. 



The Egg's the Star 




the egg is in the spotlight in the 
kitchen. At Easter, with its con- 
notation of rebirth, we use the 
egg as the symbol of a fresh be- 
ginning. In the home we have 
taken this humble chicken egg and 
worked miracles in a culinary and 
decorative way. Eggs at this time 
of year do not remain white and 
cream colored; they boast every 
hue in the rainbow. We find these 
colors in vegetable dyes, but there 
are a few old-fashioned ideas that 
would be fun to try. 

Have you ever taken a dry, clean, 
uncooked egg and covered it with 
small pieces of wet onion skins? 
Use red onions as well as the brown 
and white varieties. Carefully 
choose the most colorful skins that 
you can find, and let the onion 
skins soak in water for easier 



April 1968 



73 




study with Robert Steur 
Hair Styling team member! 



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with Robert Steur, member of the 
four-man U. S. Olympic Hair Styling 
Team. Expert instructors all trained 
by Robert Steur in his methods. 
Write for scholarship information. 



COLLEGE OF BEAUTY 

1205 Wilmington Ave., S.L.C. Phone 486-9367 



Robert Steur College of Beauty 
1 205 Wilmington Ave. 
Salt Lake City 

Please send me information about your 
courses and scholarships. 



address 



Planning to Buy or Rent in 

WASHINGTON, DC AREA? 



Booklet: DESTINATION 
WASHINGTON packed 
with information. Write 
Mrs. Jeannie Beck, LDS, 
6013 Leewood Dr. Alex., 
Va. 703-971-5340. 
OR contact 

CCOWCll 508 N.Washington St. 
•, co^panv > MC Alex., Va. 22314 
REALTORS Phone:703-549-1675 




74 



handling. Then collect some tiny 
interesting leaves and blades of 
grass. Clover makes beautiful 
patterns. Next a white crayon will 
come in handy. First print the 
name in white crayon on the egg; 
then place three or four leaves or 
blades of grass artistically around 
the egg, and cover the entire shell 
with one of the different colored 
onion skins. Wrap carefully with 
cotton thread to hold all in place. 
Arrange the eggs in a deep pan 
and cover with cold water. Put 
a cover on the pan and bring the 
water gradually to a boil; turn 
down the heat and simmer for 10 
minutes. Let the eggs stand in the 
water for a short time. Clip the 
threads and remove all the leaves 
and the onion skins. With butter 
rubbed on your hands, polish each 

egg- 

You will be happily surprised 
/just as children were 50 or 75 years 
'ago when this was one of the few 
ways to color an egg. No two eggs 
will be alike, and, in case you are 
worrying, no onion flavor or scent 
is left on the egg. 



EASTER 

EGG 

TOMORROWS 



Brunch Eggs 

(Serves 6) 



6 hard-cooked eggs, deviled 
1 can shrimp 

1 4-ounce can mushrooms, drained 

2 tablespoons butter 

2y 2 cups cheese sauce made with: 

2 tablespoons butter 

2 tablespoons flour 
Dash of salt and pepper 
y 2 teaspoon mustard 

2 cups milk 
y 2 cup grated sharp cheese 



Cut the eggs in half lengthwise and 
devil by adding onion salt, pepper, dry 
mustard, and salad dressing. Place the 
deviled egg halves in a shallow buttered 
baking pan. Break the shrimp in pieces 
and put around the eggs. Saute the 
mushrooms in the butter and when 
brown pour over the eggs and shrimp. 
Make the cheese sauce by melting the 
butter and stirring in the flour, season- 
ings, milk, and cheese. Continue stirring 
until the cheese is melted. Pour the 
sauce over the egg mixture and top 
with buttered crumbs. Bake at 350° F. 
until bubbly and brown. 

Ham and Egg Supper 

(Serves 8) 

4 tablespoons butter, melted 

3 tablespoons flour 

2 cups milk 
Salt and pepper to taste 
Va teaspoon dry mustard 

2 cups chopped ham 
10 hard-cooked eggs, sliced 

1 cup crushed potato chips 

Make a white sauce with the butter, 
flour, milk; add mustard and salt and 
pepper to taste. Sprinkle the bottom 
of a greased casserole with Vi cup of 
the crushed potato chips. Add a layer 
of ham and a layer of eggs and a layer 
of white sauce. Repeat layers and top 
with remaining potato chips. Bake in 
a 350° F. oven for about 30 minutes 
or until the casserole is brown and 
bubbly. 

Eggs Italian 

(Serves 4) 



hard-cooked eggs, sliced 

pound spaghetti, cooked until just 

tender 

onion, chopped 

tablespoons green pepper, chopped 

tablespoons butter 

tablespoons flour 

cups canned tomatoes, chopped 
Salt and pepper to taste 
Grated Parmesan cheese 



Va 



1 
3 
2 
3 
2 



Drain the spaghetti and put in a shallow 
buttered casserole. Saute the onion 
and green pepper in butter until soft 
but not brown. Stir in the flour and 
gradually blend in the tomatoes and 
salt and pepper. Stir constantly until 
thickened. Mix a third of the sauce 
with the spaghetti. Arrange the egg 
slices, overlapping, over the spaghetti, 
and cover with the remaining sauce. 
Top with the Parmesan cheese. Bake 
at 350° F. for about 15 minutes. 



Improvement Era 




number of 
you have 
complained 
that so many recipes in the new cook- 
books call for alcoholic beverages. The 
recipes are glamorous, and you long to 
use them in your menu planning. You 
ask what can be substituted for the wines 
and liquors in these recipes, because you 
do not have alcoholic beverages of any 
kind in your homes. We have a few 
suggestions. 

Alcoholic beverages are mainly used 
in recipes for three reasons: first, to 
flavor foods; second, to tenderize meats; 
and third, to moisten cakes and cookies. 
Flavor can be taken care of by using 
bottled extracts. The marinating and 
tenderizing is a more difficult problem. 
It is the acid in the alcohol that helps 
to tenderize meats. Apple cider, lemon 
juice, and vinegar can be used in the 
marinade in the place of alcoholic bever- 
ages. White grape juice can be success- 
fully used as a substitute for wine. 

Always remember that if a recipe 
calls for a dry wine, a non-sweet sub- 
stitute must be used. Some people use 
the juice drained from shrimp for this 
purpose. Fruit juices, such as orange 



April 1968 




and grape juice, can substitute as 
liquids for wine in fruitcakes, cookies, 
and desserts. 

If you wish to moisten a dark, rich, 
fruitcake, wrap it securely in a cloth 
soaked in dark grape juice. This also 
adds to the delicious flavor of the cake. 
White grape juice is best used to moisten 
and flavor white fruitcake. 

White grape juice is good poured over 
fruit cocktail. Apple cider can be sub- 
stituted for beer or wine in cheese fon- 
due. Consomme and bouillon can take 
the place of the liquor in some recipes. 
To these add lemon juice to perk up the 
flavor and delete some of the salt in 
the recipe. 



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of NEGATIVE, 84 each 

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75 





David Patten Picture 

A picture of Elder David 
Wyman Patten, a member of 
the Council of the 
Twelve from 1835 to 1838, 
has been presented to 
the Church by his 
descendants. Previously 
there had been no known 
picture or drawing of 
Elder Patten. He was 
killed at the Battle 
of Crooked River in Missouri 
in 1838. 



Endocrinologist Honored 

Dr. Grant W. Liddle of 
Nashville Branch, East 
Central States Mission, has 
been appointed chairman 
of the department of 
medicine at Vanderbilt 
University in Nashville, 
Tennessee, one of the fore- 
most medical schools 
in the United States. 
Brother Liddle is an inter- 
nationally known 
endocrinologist. 



:: - ... .. 




Woman of the Year 

Sister Ida J. Romney, wife of Elder Marion G. Romney 

of the Council of the Twelve, has been named Ricks College 

"Woman of the Year." Sister Romney received the 

tribute for her service as a wife, mother, and 

teacher in the Church. Ricks College is a two-year 

junior college of the Church at Rexburg, Idaho. 

Elder Romney's father, George S. Romney, was president 

of Ricks from 1917 to 1930. 



Nuclear Standards Expert 

President Ralph G. Chalker, 
president of the Inglewood 
(California) Stake, has 
been reappointed to the 
executive committee of the 
Nuclear Standards Board 
of the United States of 
America Standards Institute. 
The organization serves 
as the coordinating 
institution for voluntary 
nuclear standardization in 
the U.S. He is director 
of the engineering systems 
management department 
of Atomics International 
Division, North American 
Rockwell Corporation, 




National Council Member 

Dr. Harold I. Hansen of 
the Brigham Young Univer- 
sity drama and speech 
department has been 
reelected a member of the 
national council of United 
Service Organizations. 
The council's role is to select 
entertainment for 
presentation to American 
military servicemen. Dr. 
Hansen, director of the 
Church's Hill Cumorah 
Pageant, is also chairman of 
the overseas touring 
committee of the American 
Educational Theater 
Association. 




and has been responsible 
for the engineering 
design of many major 
projects, including the 
Hallam and Piqua nuclear 
power facilities. 



Covered the Olympics 

Jean Saubert of the 
University (Salt Lake 
City) Sixth Ward served 
as special commentator for 
the American Broadcasting 




Company's televised 
presentations for the 1968 
Winter Olympics at 
Grenoble, France. Sister 
Saubert, a schoolteacher, 
is a former Olympic 
skier who won the bronze 
medal in the slalom 
and the silver medal in the 
giant slalom in the 
1964 Olympics held 
at Innsbruck, 
Austria. 



76 



Improvement Era 




Provo Temple Drawing 

The First Presidency has approved the architect's 

drawing for the Provo (Utah) Temple, one of two new 

temples recently announced by the Church 

(see March Era). The Provo Temple, prominently 

located on a hill overlooking Provo and Utah Lake, 

will be on the northeast bench of Provo, about 



half a mile from Brigham Young University campus. The 
plot plan calls for a visitors center west of the 
temple, with beautifully landscaped gardens, fountains, 
and reflecting pools between the visitors center 
and the temple. Designed by Church Architect Emil B. 
Fetzer, the temple will cost about $2.5 million. 



The LDS Scene 



President-Elect 

Dr. Wilmer W. Tanner, 
professor of zoology and 
entomology at Brigham 
Young University, has 
been elected president-elect 
of the Herpetologists' 
League at the group's annual 
convention in New York 
City. He was also presented 
with a distinguished 
service award for his eight 
years as editor of the 
society's journal. He has 
published more than 
60 scholarly papers, 
much of the work dealing 




with research on 
animals for the U.S. Atomic 
Energy Commission at 
Nevada and Upper 
Colorado River Basin sites. 




President Emeritus 

Dr. E. DeAlton Partridge 
of the Caldwell (New Jersey) 
Ward has been named 
president emeritus of 



Montclair State College in 
Montclair, New Jersey. 
A new four-story classroom 
building will also be named 
in his honor. Brother 
Partridge served as the 
college's president for 
15 years before leaving to 
become president of the 
Near East Foundation. 
He is the inaugurator of the 
visual education program 
of the Boy Scouts of 
America and helped 
launch the first network 
television course for 
college credit in America. 



April 1968 



77 




By Royce Hansen 




he bus had become 

quiet now except for 

the occasional shifting of tired bodies in the early 

stages of sleep. The aisle was littered with 

crumpled candy wrappers and empty popcorn 

bags. Thirty-five boys and leaders 

had had a full day, beginning with a 4:00 a.m. 

departure on a 200-mile excursion to 

Temple Square and Lagoon. Now the excitement 

and fun had been replaced by peace and 

quiet: 35 boys and five leaders sound 

asleep, proof enough of the success of the day. 

I looked at my own son Robert asleep with 

one of his buddies. His face reflected 

a clean body and mind. Eighteen years ago in 

May he entered this life. Now he's nearly 

a man. All the activities of Church and 

school flashed through my mind. He became an 

Eagle Scout while still 13, and soon earned 

his Duty to God award. I thanked God for 

an outstanding son. 



Someone behind me stirred, and I turned 

to see Kurt muttering in his sleep as he shifted 

positions. Kurt was 18 also, and had 

received his Eagle the same night as Robert. His 

blond hair, dulled by the day's swim, hung 

over his forehead. For six years we had 

played baseball, fished, camped, and hiked 

together. As I studied the 35 boys, I 

remembered that at least 20 of them had been 

there that March night when we all nearly 

froze while sleeping out in 20-degree 

weather. I saw Pat with only a folded quilt and 

no ground cover on frozen turf; Art waving 

his cap on a 500-foot cliff; and Joe's burned 

pancakes with ashes for garnish. 

Kurt stirred again, and I looked at him for a full 

minute. How like my own son he was — living 

a full, rich, vibrant life. Why did I feel 

so close to him? Then I remembered that night. 

Kurt had saved his hard-earned money, 

and I heard him say, "I hired a special photographer 

to take an extra special picture." He grabbed 

my arm and said, "I want my picture taken 

with you and Robert." I said "cheese" 

between two Eagles while Kurt whispered, 

"I'd never have made it without you." 

As I studied the faces again, the bus hissed 

to a stop, and 35 Aaronic Priesthood youth 

began piling out. I had more than one son. 



f 






h t0 



/ 



x: 



Royce Hansen, a building contractor, 

is Scoutmaster of the Jackson (Wyoming) Ward. 



:' '■ -■■■■■ 



% %>J 



78 



Illustrated by Dick Brown 







# 

I w 



«Wft 






? V 




''WvfH J I 






ST 





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• complete convention 
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Represented by: 
ROBERT F. WARNER 
New York City 
GLENN W. FAWCETT 
Los Angeles 



MEMBER 




LDS FILMS 




EDUCATIONAL MEDIA SERVICES 

Herald R. Clark Building 

Brigham Young University 

Provo, Utah 84601 



■New Area Addresses 



BYU CHICAGO AREA 

Association Films, Inc. 

561 Hillgrove Ave., La Grange, III. 60525 

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DESERET BOOK COMPANY 
Film Department 
44 East South Temple 
Salt Lake City, Utah 841 1 1 



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160 North Holmes Street 
Idaho Falls, Idaho 83401 



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506 19th Street South 

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EDUCATIONAL MEDIA SERVICES 

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Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 8460 



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NAME. 





SOMETHING YOU SHOULDNI 



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FOOD STORAGE 
BOOKLET 

• WHAT SHOULD WE STORE? 

• STORING TO PREVENT SPOILAGE 



ROTATION PLAN, ETC. 



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79 







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80 



Buffs 

and 

Rebuffs 



Australian History 

I have been a member of the Church 
for nearly seven years, and have been an 
avid reader of the Era during those 



years. But I cannot recall reading an 
article on the history of the Church in 
Australia. Is there any possibility of 
such an article being printed? I would 
be interested to know of the history of 
the Church in my own country. 

Colin Home 
Victoria, Australia 

The Eras of January 1938 and January 
1952 both featured fine articles on the 
history of the Church in Australia^ An 
updated recent review of the Church's 
history in Australia in modern times is 
underway for a future issue. 



Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



Life without law 



Among things for which we should be most grateful are command- 
Z_X ments, standards, discipline, and law. Without these there would 
/ % be little that we could count on. Suppose there were no standards. 
Suppose that teachers, professors, academic institutions gave us no idea 
what was required of us to graduate or attain a degree, to qualify to 
practice a profession. How would we ever know what to begin to do, 
what to begin to be, or when we had fulfilled requirements? Suppose 
that parents gave us no idea what is expected of us, but simply turned 
us loose to do anything, to act in any way, honest, moral, or otherwise. 
Suppose that God had given us no knowledge of what is expected of us — 
no purpose, no standards, no requirements, no commandments. What a 
loose and helpless life it would be not to know. One of the greatest 
blessings of life is law. Without it ownership of property would not 
be possible. Safety would not be possible. Civilization would not be 
possible. Life would scarcely be possible. Poorly as it sometimes is 
observed, badly as it may sometimes be abused and broken, it is law 
basically that holds us together, that assures pay for work, title to 
property, protection of person. Even the lives of the lawless would be 
intolerable, insupportable, without law. And so before being rebellious 
or abandoning commandments; before flaunting morals, destroying con- 
ventions, ridiculing responsible conduct; before disrespecting those who 
enforce the law; before opposing parents, teachers, those who have 
concern and interest in us, stop and think what life would be like 
without law, how little we would have without law, how little incentive 
there would be to produce or to learn without law. Thank God for 
knowledge of what is expected of us, for parents who care enough to 
counsel, to discipline, to persuade; for teachers who care enough to 
establish and maintain standards; for a God and Father who cared 
enough to give us purpose, counsel, commandments. Without law, com- 
mandments, standards, discipline, we would be utterly loose and utterly 
lost. 

* "The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia 
Broadcasting System January 28, 1968. Copyright 1968. 



Improvement Era 



Church Contributions 

The February Era carried an article, 
titled "Where Does All the Money Go?" 
which caused me some concern. The 
author lists 11 items for a suggested 
breakdown of take-home pay. But, in 
which of the 11 categories would a fam- 
ily include the moneys it should con- 
tribute for welfare, budget, building 
assessments, missionary fund, and fast 
offerings? In our household we con- 
tribute 4.5 percent of our take-home pay 
to these funds. This seems like a sig- 
nificant percentage, and the article 
should possibly have a category titled 
"other Church contributions." Since 
Church members are encouraged to con- 
tribute regularly to these other funds, 
this addition would more truly reflect 
our present pattern in the Church. 

Also, there was a misunderstanding in 
our ward because of the category on 
tithing. One member stated that he had 
to tithe only on his take-home pay, and 
we presume he felt the other 2 percent 
was for other contributions. Quite pos- 
sibly a clearer presentation would have 
been : 

$5,000 - $7,000 

Take-home pay Gross Income 

1. Tithing 12% 10% 

2. Other Church 

contributions 4% 3% 

Elvin L. Mullen 
Sacramento, California 

LDS Servicemen 

Congratulations on the long overdue word 
in the January Era for our servicemen. 
It was excellent. Having had a son 
and son-in-law in the military service, I 
personally know that many things said 
by the LDS chaplains are true. One of 
my heartening experiences was a visit to 
a "service ward" here in the U.S., and 
to see what can actually be done with 
the right leadership. Too long have our 
servicemen been mentioned in the same 
vein as the unwed mother, the delinquent 
dropout. Instead, your article was "our 
religion in action"— "brotherhood in ac- 
tion." You have done immense good for 
this group. 

Clark Theurer 
Nampa, Idaho 

Picture of the Prophet? 

You may be interested 

in this picture. The 

copy underneath it says: 

"The picture herewith 

presented is one of 

many of the Prophet 

Joseph Smith. It is 

reproduced from one 

published in Harpers 

Pictorial many years ago 

and now makes its first 

appearance; and although it is only a 

wood cut there are in it some true lines 

and features of the Prophet at about the 

age of twenty-six. At this early period 

the science of photography was not at the 

zenith of perfection and pictures of 

prominent men not so plentiful. . . ." 

Edward Stevenson 
Salt Lake City, Utah 



April 1968 





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Choose from these and many other 
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81 




rayer has always 
(been a vital, 
personal force in my life." These 
are the words of one of America's 
great military heroes, James Doo- 
little. His life is a life of courage, 
a life guided by prayer. 

It is a sign of real maturity when 
a young man or a young woman 
seeks the Lord's assistance in his 
day-to-day challenges. Many great 
men have learned, as did Jimmy 
Doolittle, that their efforts are in 
vain unless they are assisted and 
directed by the Lord. Benjamin 
Franklin, in urging the members 
of the constitutional convention to 
include prayer as part of its pro- 
ceedings, said this: "I have lived, 
sir, a long time, and the longer I 
live, the more convincing proofs I 
see of this truth— that God governs 
in the affairs of men. ... I there- 
fore beg leave to move — that 



henceforth prayers imploring the 
assistance of Heaven, and its bless- 
ings on our deliberations, be held 
in this assembly every morning 
before we proceed to business. . . ." 

Other Americans have echoed 
similar testimonies of prayer. Eddie 
Rickcnbacker has said, "Prayer 
has been the greatest source of 
power in my life." Cecil B. DeMille 
made this statement regarding 
prayer: "I could not live a day 
without it. It is the greatest power 
in the world." 

Job, the scriptures tell us, faced 
many of life's most severe tests. 
He lost his wealth, his family, his 
health, and his friends. Yet, he 
retained his unfaltering faith in 
God. From Job's words have come 
many great spiritual insights. The 
comments of Job regarding some 
of his contemporaries are descrip- 
tive of many in our society today. 
His words were these: "They spend 
their days in wealth, and in a mo- 
ment go down to the grave. There- 
fore, they say unto God, Depart 
from us; for we desire not the 
knowledge of thy ways. What is 
the Almighty, that we should serve 
him? and what profit should we 
have, if we pray unto him?" (Job 
21:13-15.) 

With our great wealth, our 
medical advances, and our plenti- 
ful comforts, some may find them- 
selves ignoring the continual need 
they have to pray to our Father in 
heaven. Many today seem to be 
echoing the statement of Job's 
contemporaries, ". . . what profit 
should we have if we pray unto 
him?" 

There is a great need for every 
person to realize the importance of 



prayer as he builds his life, for it is 
true that "except the Lord build the 
house, they labour in vain that 
build it. . . ." (Ps. 127:1.) 

Prayer can be a vital force in our 
lives, but we must learn how to 
make our prayers effective. As 
children, our prayers may have 
been mere repetition of phrases 
that we had learned. As we mature, 
it is well to view prayer with 
greater depth and with greater 
significance. 

To begin with, it should be 
understood that prayer involves 
talking to God. This occasion 
should be approached seriously 
and with meaningful intent. For 
our prayers to be effectual, it is im- 
portant that we approach our 
Father in heaven with complete 
faith and humility. We must 
acknowledge before our Father 
our trust and our limitations in 
order for him to be able to supple- 
ment our efforts. 

As we approach our Father in 
heaven with humility and faith, we 
must be aware of what type of 
assistance we may ask from him. 
Amulek, in the Book of Mormon, 
indicates that we should pray for 
help in every area of our lives. 
This is his counsel: "Yea, cry unto 
him for mercy; for he is mighty 
to save. 

"Yea, humble yourselves, and 
continue in prayer unto him. 

"Cry unto him when ye are in 
your fields, yea, over all your 
flocks. 

"Cry unto him in your houses, 
yea, over all your household, both 
morning, mid-day, and evening. 

"Yea, cry unto him against the 
power of your enemies. 



82 



Improvement Era 



"Yea, cry unto him against the 
devil, who is an enemy to all 
righteousness. 

"Cry unto him over the crops of 
your fields, that ye may prosper in 
them. 

"Cry over the flocks of your 
fields, that they may increase. 

"But this is not all; ye must pour 
out your souls in your closets, and 
your secret places, and in your 
wilderness. 

"Yea, and when you do not cry 
unto the Lord, let your hearts be 
full, drawn out in prayer unto him 
continually for your welfare, and 
also for the welfare of those who 
are around you." (Al. 34:18-27.) 

Thus, through prayer we can 
receive the help of the Lord in all 
of our righteous endeavors. But as 
young men and young women, it is 
important that we fully understand 
( 1 ) what part we must fulfill be- 
fore the Lord can answer our 
prayers, and ( 2 ) how the Lord will 
answer our prayers. 

In the scriptures, the Lord has 
made it very clear that effectual 
prayer involves a great amount of 
effort on our part. This idea was 
clearly explained by the Lord to 
Oliver Cowdery. Oliver had asked 
for the gift of translation, but he 
had not completed his part in order 
that the Lord could grant his 
desire. The Lord gave Oliver this 
counsel concerning prayer: "Be- 
hold, you have not understood; you 
have supposed that I would give it 
unto you, when you took no 
thought save it was to ask me. But, 
behold, I say unto you, that you 
must study it out in your mind; 
then you must ask me if it be 
right " (D&C 9:7-8.) 



This is a very important thing 
for us to realize if our prayers are 
to be meaningful. When we need 
the Lord's help with a decision, he 
expects us to arrive at a tentative 
decision based on our own under- 
standing and then approach him 
in prayer to have our decision con- 
firmed or disapproved. 

Now the question arises, "How 
can we know if the Lord confirms 
or disapproves our decision?" The 
Lord provided this additional direc- 
tion as he gave Oliver the counsel 
to which we have previously re- 
ferred: ". . . if it is right, I will 
cause that your bosom shall burn 
within you; therefore, you shall 
feel that it is right. But if it be not 
right, you shall have no such feel- 
ings, but you shall have a stupor 
of thought that shall cause you 
to forget the thing which is 
wrong " (D&C 9:8-9.) 

In order for our prayers to be 
answered, we need to ask for the 
Lord's assistance when we have 
completed the part the Lord ex- 
pects of us. Then we must learn to 
be sensitive to the promptings of 
the Spirit in order to discern the 
answer the Lord gives. 

We need to realize that the an- 
swer to our prayers may not be 
according to our will. But if we 
are humble and trust in the 
Lord and follow the promptings 
of the Spirit, the answer we receive 
will be for our growth and 
development. 

We should understand that we 
cannot pray away the tests of 
mortality, but we can pray for the 
character to meet them and the 
power to triumph over them. 

May we learn to tap the power 



of God through prayer. And as 
President McKay has so beauti- 
fully expressed: 

"I hope that some day you will 
have a longing, a longing that 
seems to wring your soul (in ex- 
pressing that hope I have your 
interest at heart) that you will 
meet a wall that seems insurmount- 
able, impregnable; but if duty lies 
beyond that wall, do not stand back 
and say, 1 cannot do it.' You may 
aspire to do it, but that is not 
sufficient. Do what James, the au- 
thor of the scripture theme says: 
Ask God for power, but add to that 
faith, an acknowledgment of your 
own ability to do what you are able 
to do. 

"You can walk from where you 
stand, up to the wall. When you 
get there, and you have gone as 
far as you can, you will find in 
answer to your prayer that there is 
a hidden ladder by which you can 
scale it, or there is a door which 
you could not see from where you 
were first standing. God's hand is 
shown. In that hour you become 
responsive to the Infinite, and you 
realize what it means to be entitled 
to the guidance of the Holy Ghost; 
and he will guide you in these 
things. 

"Wisdom comes through effort. 
All good things require effort. That 
which is worth having will cost 
part of your physical being, your 
intellectual power and your soul 
power. 'Ask, and it shall be given 
you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, 
and it shall be opened unto 
you.' But you have to ask, 
you have to knock, you have to 
seek." (Treasures of Life, pp. 303- 
04.) O 



April 1968 



83 




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84 



The Church 
Moves On 



January 1968 

The appointments of Hugh D. 

Rush and Colleen M. Makin to 
the general boards of the Young Men's 
and Young Women's Mutual Improve- 
ment Associations were announced. 



* 

Richard L. Evans 

The Spoken Word 



any who love you 



Wf e are most of us very lonely in this world; you who have any 
who love you, cling to them and thank God." 1 These words 
from an unknown source suggest something of the searching of 
soul that comes when we ask ourselves how much we mean to others, 
how much they mean to us, how much our presence or absence means to 
anyone, how much difference it would make if we were in or out of 
the world, how much we would be missed. Whatever the findings 
of this line of thought, it leads us to look at loved ones, at those we 
belong to, those who belong to us, and leads us to know the deep 
importance of family love and loyalty. How blessed to be able to turn 
homeward when we are tired or ill or discouraged, or just plain weary 
of the ways of the world— of small talk, impersonal people, and the 
endless round of routine. How blessed to belong, and how much we 
owe those who are there, just for the blessing of belonging, just for a 
place in the family circle. We may become bored or irritable at times 
with home and family and familiar surroundings. All this may seem 
unglamorous, with a sense of sameness, and other places may sometimes 
seem more exciting. But when we have sampled much and wandered 
far and seen how fleeting and sometimes superficial some other things 
are, our gratitude grows for the privilege of being part of something we 
can count on— home and family and the loyalty of loved ones. Friends 
enrich life, and the days would be poor and emptier without them. 
Professional people are appreciated and add much of service and assur- 
ance, but more and more we come to know how much it means to be 
bound together by duty, by respect, by belonging, and nothing can 
fully take the place of the basic relationship of family life. "A man 
travels the world over in search of what he needs," said George Moore, 
"and returns home to find it." 2 "We are most of us very lonely in this 
world; you who have any who love you, cling to them and thank God." 

Author unknown. 

2 George Moore, The Brook Kerish, Chapter 11. 

* "The Spoken Word" from Temple Square, presented over KSL and the Columbia 
Broadcasting System January 21, 1968. Copyright 1968. 



Improvement Era 



February 1968 

This is the month that Latter-day 
Saints and their friends feel 
generously old as they make their an- 
nual contributions, based on a sug- 
gested two cents for each year of their 
age, in support of the Primary Chil- 
dren's Hospital. 

Layton East Stake, the 449th 
now functioning, was organized 
from portions of Layton (Utah) Stake 
by Elder Delbert L. Stapley of the 
Council of the Twelve and by William 
J. Critchlow, Jr., Assistant to the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve. Sustained as presi- 
dent of Layton East Stake was Robert 

F. Bitner. His counselors are David E. 
Adams and Wayne M. Winegar. Sus- 
tained as counselors to President I. 
Haven Barlow of Layton Stake were 

G. Ralph Dibble and R. Jay Harris. 

San Jose South Stake, the 450th 
now functioning, was organized 
from parts of San Jose (California) 
Stake by Elder Howard W. Hunter of 
the Council of the Twelve and Patri- 
arch Eldred G. Smith. DeBoyd L. 
Smith was sustained as stake presi- 
dent with Kenneth Foulger and Reed 
A. Hill as counselors. 

New stake presidency: President Wil- 
liam Campbell and counselors, lain B. 
McKay and Henry T. Randell, Wellington 
(New Zealand) Stake. 

Major Bernard F. Fisher, a Medal 
of Honor winner, now stationed 
at Hahn Air Force Base, Germany, was 
the featured speaker at the 49th annual 
scouter convention sponsored by the 
Great Salt Lake Council, Boy Scouts of 
America. Twenty-five Silver Beaver 
awards were presented during the 
meeting in the Tabernacle. It was re- 
ported that 745 Eagle Scout awards 
were presented by the council in 1967. 

All missionaries and members 
were reported to be safe follow- 
ing a severe hurricane, according to a 
cablegram sent from Niue, Tonga, to 
General Authorities in Salt Lake City. 



April 1968 



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86 



Crop damage was reported as severe, 
with slight to moderate damage to 
buildings. 

It was announced that a worldwide 
genealogical convention and seminar 
will be held in Salt Lake City August 
5-8, 1969. Bob R. Zabriskie has been 
named planning coordinator. 

Missionaries and Samoan mem- 
bers were reported safe after a 
hurricane struck the Samoan Islands 
and destroyed most of the crops. 

The appointment of J. Vernon 
Sharp to the Deseret Sunday 
School Union general board was an- 
nounced. 

Correction: An error was made in 
this column for December 3 (February 
Era) in the listing of the Washington 
(D.C.) Stake presidency reorganization. 
First Counselor Robert W. Barker was 
released to serve as a Regional Repre- 
sentative of the Twelve. Sustained as 
counselors to President Milan D. Smith 
were June B. Thayne and Wendell G. 
Eames. 

Paradoxical 
By Iris W. Schow 

How often I have deemed a day 

auspicious 
And thought to blazon it in blue 

and gold 
For my remembering; yet the 

capricious 
Demands of time and place have 

left it cold 
And drab of hue, too colorless to 

hold 
For the adornment of the mind's 

long halls. 

But I have had days humbly 
undertaken 

As little sketches done in black 
and white 

Unfold in living oils of unmis- 
taken 

Artistic lines. Their lasting 
colors, bright 

As flame or sea, remain in 
memory's light 

Emblazoned on the mind's eter- 
nal walls. 



Improvement Era 



Civil 
Disobedience 

and the 
Destruction 
of Freedom 




By Dr. G. Homer Durham 

President. Arizona State University 




abuse of freedom 
leads to the 
destruction of freedom. 

Civil disobedience against in- 
tolerable tyranny and against the 
denial of elemental freedom may 
be justified, as set forth in the 
Declaration of Independence. But 
when civil disobedience is resorted 
to in the face and presence of un- 
used and easily available remedies 
for injustice, civil disobedience 
undermines both law and freedom. 
When disobedience is resorted to 
merely as means of attracting 
notoriety, publicity, or attention, 
when the instruments of mass 
communications augment and ag- 
grandize the acts of disorder, the 
results are despicable. The fab- 
ric of freedom is further strained. 

Acts by a few, such as mass sit- 
downs in public buildings and 
thoroughfares that interfere with 



the public business and the lives 
and safety of the vast majority, if 
not illegal under present law, 
should be carefully legislated 
against. Such acts are as destruc- 
tive in the short run, in a given 
moment, as bombing these same 
buildings, bridges, or thorough- 
fares would be in the long run. 

Civil order is the first basic 
achievement of the state. The 
slow and painful struggle to re- 
tain order under responsible au- 
thority and to achieve civil rights 
and liberties under that authority 
has been the glory of the modern 
democratic state. 

The democratic state maximizes 
individual freedom. For millions 
of free agents to occupy space 
and live in the same state imposes 
unusual responsibilities on every 
individual. Primary among these 
responsibilities is respect for the 
law. 

When illegally resorted to, civil 
disobedience provokes force and 
reaction. When, thereby, cheap 
and stupid purposes are promoted, 
far more than when noble and 
critical issues are at stake, re- 
action can be more pronounced 
and the nature of the state en- 
dangered. 

What do good, freedom-loving 
men do? How is the law to be 
maintained if the respected free- 
dom for all to use the streets, the 
schools, the parks, walks, bridges, 
and public buildings is being 
denied? 



The right of dissent is an im- 
portant right. Martin Luther, John 
Adams, Roger Williams record and 
mark its importance. The right 
of dissent is central to freedom of 
conscience, thought, expression, 
religion, and learning. But when 
the right of dissent leaves the 
realm of thought and expression 
and becomes action and the forced 
movement of bodies, as distin- 
guished from the movement of 
tongue and brain in thought, physi- 
cal expression becomes as limited 
as the right to move one's body, 
or his fist, at any time. Freedom 
of expression does not include the 
right to express a bullet from a 
rifle at another, or to use a fist, 
or to block access. The "right" 
to impose one's body stops at the 
tip of the other fellow's toes, nose, 
or any other part of his body. 

When bodies are used to ob- 
struct access to or from one's own 
vehicle, home, assigned place of 
duty in the world of commerce, 
government, or other lawful en- 
terprise, or to public property, 
campus, thoroughfare, or ordinary 
lawful business, the act of ob- 
struction is as despicable as any 
Berlin Wall, barbed wire, or Vopo 
bullet. 

The effects are the same — de- 
privation of freedoms. And the 
law of freedom must be given full 
expression, by due process of law, 
to protect freedom of expression. 
A free society cannot have one 
without the other. O 



April 1968 



87 



End of an Era 



While investigating the 
Church, my family attended 
Sunday School with the 
missionaries. Later we 
asked my little sister 
how she liked her 
Junior Sunday School class. 
"Well," she said, "my 
class was just full of mean 
little boys who teased 
me." Then she brightened 
and added, "But any 
church that can turn such 
bratty little boys into 
such nice elders just 
has to be true !" 
—Carolyn Brink, Denver, 
Colorado 

My interest is in the future 
because I am going to spend the 
rest of my life there. 
— Charles Franklin Kettering, 
American inventor 

He lives, all glory to his name! 

He lives, my Savior still 

the same; 

O sweet the joy this sentence 

gives: 

"/ know that my Redeemer 

lives!" 

— Hymns 95 

"I agree," said the psychiatrist, 
"that he may have a spark 
of genius. But in my 
opinion, he also has ignition 
trouble." 



By working faithfully eight 

hours a day, you may eventually 

get to be a boss and work 

twelve hours a day. 

— Robert Frost, American poet 



The man most likely to use 
truth is the one who seeks to 
understand it and to 
appreciate its value in his own 
life. — Elder Paul H. Dunn 



A woman entered the 
butcher shop and asked the 
butcher to cut off a piece 
of beef weighing 15 pounds. 
"Here you are, madam," 
he said ; "shall I wrap it up for 
you?" "No," she replied. 
"I just wanted to see what 
15 pounds looked like. That's 
how much I lost on my diet." 



As I was traveling by 
train during a mission 
transfer, a young lady 
sitting in the seat in front 
of me suddenly turned 
around and said, 
"Excuse me, but you're an 
American, aren't you?" 
"No," I replied; "I'm 
an Australian." At this she 
looked apologetic and 
turned back in her seat. 
After thinking about 
her question for a 
minute, I tapped her 
shoulder and asked, 
"Pardon me, but what made 
you suppose that I was 
American?" Her answer was 
stunning. "Because 
you look so much like a 
Mormon !"—Elder Owen B. 
Mutjelburg, New Zealand 
South Mission 



Manless Menus 
By Donna Evleth 

/ have served up hot dogs twice, 
And bland concoctions made with rice, 
Hamburgers until it hurts, 
And endless gelatin desserts. 

Spaghetti's reared its starchy head, 
And so has peanut-buttered bread. 
I've choked a lot of waffles down. 
You guessed it: Father's out of town. 



A 



"End of an Era" will pay $3 for humorous anecdotes and experiences relating to Latter-day Saint way of life. Maximum length 150 words. 



88 



Improvement Era 




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